Büchner, Georg (1813–37), German dramatist, forerunner of expressionism.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Bounty, Mutiny on the to Buffalo Bill
Bounty, Mutiny on the See: Bligh, William; Nordhoff and Hall.
Bourbon, powerful family that for generations ruled France, Naples and Sicily (the Two Sicilies), Parma, and Spain; named for the castle of Bourbon northwest of Moulins.
Bourgeoisie See: Communism.
Bourguiba, Habib Ben Ali (1903– ), Tunisian nationalist politician and Tunisia's first president (1957–87).
Bourke-White, Margaret (1906–71), U.S. photographer and war correspondent who covered World War II and the Korean War for Time-Life, Inc.
Bowditch, Nathaniel (1773–1838), self-taught U.S. mathematician and astronomer remembered for his New American Practical Navigator (1802), “the seaman's bible,” later made standard in the U.S. navy.
Bowdoin, James (1726–90), U.S. revolutionary leader.
Bowell, Sir Mackenzie (1823–1917), Canadian prime minister (1894–96).
Bowen, Elizabeth (1899–1973), English-Irish novelist, whose works are distinguished by their meticulous style and emotional sensitivity.
Bowerbird, forest-dwelling bird (family Ptilonorhynchidae) native to Australia and New Guinea that builds “bowers” of sticks decorated with bones, shells, berries, and flowers.
Bowfin, large freshwater fish (Amia calva) of eastern North America, also known as the grindle, mudfish, or freshwater dogfish.
Bowie, James (1796–1836), Kentucky-born frontier hero who reputedly invented the bowie hunting knife.
Bowles, Paul (1910– ), U.S. author and composer living in Morocco.
Bowles, Samuel (1826–78), U.S. newspaper editor and political leader.
Bowling, indoor sport that involves rolling a ball to knock down wooden pins.
Boxelder, or ash-leaf maple (Acer negundo), deciduous tree native to North America.
Boxer, medium-sized dog first bred in Germany in the 1800s.
Boxer Rebellion, violent uprising in China in 1900 directed against foreigners and instigated by the secret society “Harmonious Fists” (called Boxers by the Europeans).
Boxing, sport of skilled fist-fighting. Two contestants wearing padded gloves attack each other by punching prescribed parts of the body, while avoiding or blocking their opponent's punches. Boxing contests are arranged between opponents in the same weight division or class; there are 10 classes ranging from flyweight to heavyweight. Fights take place in a square roped-off ring and consist …
Boxwood, or box, several species of evergreen shrubs and trees (genus Buxus), native to tropical and subtropical parts of the Old World and Central America, but widely introduced elsewhere.
Boy Scouts, international boys' organization founded in 1908 by Sir Robert Baden- Powell to develop character, initiative, and good citizenship. The organization is nonsectarian, nonpolitical, and nonmilitary. The Boy Scouts are organized in about 100 countries, and worldwide membership is approximately 8 million. Scouting emphasizes outdoor knowledge and skills, including nature lore and w…
Boyd, Belle (1843–1900), Confederate spy in the American Civil War.
Boyle, Robert (1627–91), British natural philosopher, often called the father of modern chemistry for his rejection of the theories of the alchemists and his espousal of atomism.
Boyne, Battle of the, battle on the River Boyne in East Ireland on July 12, 1690, which ended James II's attempt to regain the English throne.
Boys Town, village near Omaha, Neb., founded in 1917 as a community for homeless and abandoned boys by Father Edward J.
Boysenberry, variety of blackberry (Rubus ursinus) that grows on a trailing plant.
Bozeman Trail, route between Wyoming, and Montana used as a short-cut during the 1860s to reach gold fields in Montana and Idaho.
Brace, Charles Loring (1826–90), U.S. social reformer who worked to improve conditions for poor children and helped organize the Children's Aid Society in New York City in 1853.
Braces See: Orthodontics.
Bradbury, Ray (1920– ), U.S. science-fiction writer, whose short stories deal with moral dilemmas.
Braddock, Edward (1695–1755), commander-in-chief of British forces in North America, who was disastrously defeated in the French and Indian Wars.
Bradford, family name of prominent U.S. printers and editors.
Bradford (pop. 477,500), city and parlimentary borough of Yorkshire, England, in the Aire valley, 9 mi (14 km) from Leeds.
Bradford, William (1590–1657), Pilgrim Father who helped to establish Plymouth Colony and governed it most of his life (reelected 30 times from 1621).
Bradley, James (1693–1762), British astronomer.
Bradley, Omar Nelson (1893–1981), U.S. general.
Bradley, Thomas (1917– ), U.S. public official, mayor of Los Angeles.
Bradstreet, Anne Dudley (c.1612–72), English-American colonial poet.
Brady, Mathew B. (1823–96), U.S. photographer of historic events and eminent people, including 18 U.S. presidents.
Bragg, Braxton (1817–76), Confederate Civil War general.
Bragg, Sir William Henry (1862–1942), British physicist who shared the 1915 Nobel Prize in physics with his son, Sir William Lawrence Bragg (1890–1971), for the deduction of the atomic structure of crystals from their X-ray diffraction patterns (1912).
Brahe, Tycho (1546–1601), Danish astronomer, the greatest exponent of naked-eye positional astronomy.
Brahmanism, Indian religion based on belief in Brahma.
Brahmans See: Hinduism.
Brahmaputra River, river that rises in the Himalayas and flows about 1,800 mi (2,897 km) through Tibet, northeastern India, Bangladesh, and south to the Ganges, forming the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta on the Bay of Bengal.
Brahms, Johannes (1833–97), major German Romantic composer.
Braille, system of writing for the blind developed by Louis Braille, employing patterns of raised dots that can be read by touch.
Braille, Louis (1809–52), French inventor of braille.
Brain, complex organ coordinating nerve activity and responsible for thought in higher animal forms. Invertebrates have only a rudimentary brain, most highly developed in the octopus. Vertebrates have brains more fully differentiated, consisting of forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. In highly developed vertebrate animals, the forebrain has developed into a large and highly differentiated cerebrum…
Brainwashing, manipulation of an individual's will, generally without his or her knowledge and against his or her wishes.
Brake, device for slowing or halting motion, usually by conversion of kinetic energy into heat energy via the medium of friction.
Bramante, Donato (1444–1514), Italian architect who developed the classical principles of High Renaissance architecture.
Bramble, any of a genus (Rubus) of prickly shrubs of the rose family.
Bran, husk of cereal grains (e.g., wheat, rye, or corn), removed from the flour during milling.
Brancusi, Constantin (1876–1957), Romanian sculptor famous for his simple, elemental, polished forms.
Brand name See: Trademark.
Brandeis, Louis Dembitz (1856–1941), U.S. jurist, influential in securing social, political, and economic reforms, especially while an associate justice of the Supreme Court (1916–39).
Brandenburg, historic region in eastern Germany.
Brando, Marlon (1924– ), U.S. stage and screen actor.
Brandt, Willy (Karl Herbert Frahm; (1913–92), Social Democratic chancellor of West Germany 1969–74, whose Ostpolitik (Eastern policy) marked a major step towards East-West detente in Europe.
Brandy, alcoholic drink of distilled wine, usually matured in wood casks.
Brandywine, Battle of, British victory in the American Revolutionary War.
Brant, any of several North American wild geese (genus Branta) which breed in the Arctic and fly southward to Eurasia and North America for the winter.
Brant, Joseph (Thayendanegea; 1742–1807), Mohawk chief, Episcopal missionary, and British army colonel.
Braque, Georges (1882–1963), French painter and sculptor.
Brasília (pop. 1,596,300), federal capital of Brazil since 1960, located on the Paraná River, 600 mi (966 km) northwest of the old coastal capital, Rio de Janeiro.
Brass, alloy of copper and zinc, known since Roman times and widely used in industry and for ornament and decoration.
Bratislava (pop. 446,600), capital of Slovakia.
Brattain, Walter Houser (1902–87), U.S. physicist who helped invent the transistor.
Braun, Eva (1912–45), mistress (from 1930) and later wife of Adolf Hitler.
Braun, Wernher von (1912–77), German-American rocket pioneer.
Braxton, Carter (1736–97), American political leader during the Revolutionary War period.
Brazil, fifth largest country in the world and largest in South America, constituting nearly half the continent's land area. Brazil shares borders with all South American countries except Ecuador and Chile. It is the only Latin American country whose official language is Portuguese. Most of Brazil falls within 2 major geographical regions: the lowlands of the Amazon River system and the pla…
Brazil nut, South American tree (genus Bertholletia) of the Amazon and Negro rivers.
Brazilwood, heavy wood of various trees (genus Caesalpinia).
Brazzaville (pop. 596,200), river port and capital of the Republic of the Congo, situated below the Stanley Pool on the right bank of the Congo River.
Bread, one of humanity's earliest and most important foods, made of baked dough—a mixture of flour and water.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), tree of the mulberry family, whose fruit is the staple diet in the South Pacific.
Breakbone fever See: Dengue.
Breakwater, timber, masonry, or stone barrier constructed to give protection from heavy seas.
Bream, any of a variety of European freshwater fishes of the carp family, growing up to 17 lb (8 kg).
Breast, front of the chest; especially in female mammals, the modified cutaneous, glandular structure it bears—the mamma or mammary gland. In humans, each breast consists of 15 to 20 branching ducts surrounded by connective tissue that acts as a supporting framework. The larger partitions between the lobes form strands that extend from the skin to the underlying deep fascia. At puberty in t…
Breast cancer, malignant growth in the breast or mammary gland.
Breasted, James Henry (1865–1935), U.S. archaeologist and historian, who advanced archaeological research in Egypt and western Asia.
Brecht, Bertolt (Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht; 1898–1956), German Marxist playwright and poet, who revolutionized modern theater with his production techniques and concept of epic theater.
Breckinridge, John Cabell (1821–75), congressman and vice-president of the United States, and major-general and secretary of war of the Confederate States of America.
Breckinridge, Sophonisba (1866–1948), U.S. pioneer teacher of social work.
Breed's Hill See: Bunker Hill, Battle of.
Breedlove, Craig (1937– ), U.S. racing-car driver.
Bremen (pop. 552,300), city in northwest Germany, situated on the Weser River, 38 mi (61 km) from Bremerhaven on the estuary.
Brendan, Saint (c.A.D. 484–c.578), Irish monk, founder of Clonfert and other monasteries.
Brennan, William Joseph, Jr. (1906– ), U.S.
Brenner Pass, important pass across the Alps, in the Tyrol, linking Innsbruck in Austria with Bolzano in Italy.
Breslau See: Wroclaw.
Bresson, Robert (1907– ), French film director, noted for the austere, penetrating quality of his work.
Brest (pop. 153,100), seaport and naval station in Finistère department, northwest France.
Brethren, Children of the, Baptist sect organized in Germany in 1708.
Breton, André (1896–1966), French poet and critic, a founder of surrealism.
Bretton Woods Conference, international gathering at Bretton Woods, N.H., in July 1944, at which 44 members of the United Nations planned to stabilize the international economy and national currencies after World War II.
Breuer, Marcel (Lajos) (1902–81), Hungarian-born U.S. architect.
Brewing, process of making beer from cereal grains, usually barley.
Brewster, William (1567–1644), leader of the Plymouth Colony in New England.
Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich (1906–82), USSR political leader, who became first secretary of the Communist Party and effective head of the Soviet government in 1964.
Brian Boru (941–1014), king of Ireland from 1002.
Briand, Aristide (1862–1932), French politician, lawyer, and socialist leader who was 11 times premier of France.
Briar See: Brier.
Briard, sheepdog first bred in France in the twelfth century.
Brice, Fanny (Fannie Borach; 1891–1951), U.S. popular singer and performer of musical comedy.
Brick, building material made of clay, sometimes reinforced with straw, shaped into rectangles and hardened by heat. Sun-dried bricks were used as a building material at least 6,000 years ago in Mesopotamia. The discovery of the technique of firing clay in kilns enabled hard durable bricks to be made. Examples of fired bricks have been found in excavations at the city of Ur that are at least 5,000…
Bridge, card game developed from whist.
Bridge, structure that spans an obstacle and permits traffic across it. The beam (or girder) bridge consists of a rigid beam resting at either end on piers. A development of this is the truss bridge, with a metal framework designed for greatest strength at those points where the load has greatest moment around the piers. Where piers are impracticable, a cantilever bridge may be built on beams (can…
Bridge of Sighs, landmark bridge in Venice, Italy.
Bridgeport (pop. 141,686), city in southwestern Connecticut, about 65 mi (105 km) from New York City.
Bridger, James (1804–81), U.S. trader, explorer, and army scout.
Bridges, Harry (Alfred Bryant Renton Bridges; 1901–90), U.S. labor leader, Australian- born.
Bridgetown (pop. 7,500), capital and only port of Barbados.
Bridgman, Laura Dewey (1829–89), first blind and deaf child to be successfully educated in the United States.
Brier, shrubby plant (Erica arborea) of the heath family, known for its fragrant, white, globe-shaped flowers.
Bright, Richard (1789–1858), English physician who first identified the kidney disorder known as Bright's Disease, now called nephritis.
Brighton (pop. 143,000), popular English seaside resort on the south coast, 51 mi (82 km) south of London.
Brisbane (pop. 1,301,700), city and seaport in eastern Australia, capital of the state of Queensland.
Bristlecone pine, evergreen tree (Pinus aristata) native to the Rocky Mountains of the United States.
Bristol (pop. 396,600), large city and port in southwestern England, situated at the confluence of the Avon and Frome rivers, 6 mi (9.7 km) from the mouth of the Avon.
Bristol Channel, inlet of the Atlantic Ocean between Wales and southwestern England.
Britain, modern form of the ancient name for the island now comprising England, Scotland, and Wales.
Britain, Battle of, air battle of World War II from Aug. 8 to Oct. 31, 1940, between the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and the German Luftwaffe.
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), publicly financed company that runs all radio and 2 of the 3 television networks in Britain.
British Cameroons, former UN trust territory on the west coast of Africa in what is now Nigeria and Cameroon.
British Columbia, westernmost of Canada's provinces, bordered by Alberta on the east, Montana, Idaho, and Washington on the south, the Pacific Ocean and Alaska on the west, and the Yukon and Northwest Territories on the north.
British Commonwealth of Nations See: Commonwealth of Nations.
British Empire See: Great Britain.
British Guiana See: Guyana.
British Honduras See: Belize.
British Indian Ocean Territory, British dependency in the Indian Ocean, about 1,180 mi (1,900 km) northeast of Mauritius.
British Isles, island group bounded by the English Channel, the Strait of Dover, the North Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean.
British Library, national library of Great Britain, one of the largest research libraries in the world.
British Museum, national museum of antiquities and ethnography in London.
British North America Act, act passed by the British Parliament in 1867 to create the Dominion of Canada, uniting Canada (Quebec and Ontario), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia under a federal government.
British thermal unit (BTU), quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water 1°F at, or near, its point of maximum density (39.1°F).
British West Indies, collective name for islands in the Caribbean Sea that are or have been dependencies of Great Britain, including Anguilla, the Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Grenada, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and the British Virgin Islands.
Brittany, breed of hunting dog with a short, thick coat, white with orange or red-brown markings.
Brittany (French: Bretagne), historic penninsular region of northwestern France.
Britten, Benjamin (1913–76), British composer.
Brittle star, marine invertebrate (class Ophiuroidea), 5-armed relative of starfish found in seas all over the world.
Brno (formerly Brünn; pop. 388,300), city in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, chief city of Moravia.
Broad bean, Windsor bean, or horse bean (Vicia faba), annual plant producing seed pods up to 1 ft (30 cm) long, containing large edible beans.
Broadcasting See: Journalism; Radio; Television.
Broccoli, form of cabbage, a branching cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botytis), grown for the immature flowers.
Broglie, Louis Victor, Prince de (1892–1987), French physicist, awarded the 1929 Nobel Prize in physics for his suggestion that subatomic particles would display wave-like properties under appropriate conditions.
Bromegrass, any of about 60 kinds of grass of genus Bromus, found mostly in the Northern Hemisphere and including both weed grasses and grasses valuable as pasturage and soil binders.
Bromeliad, large family of tropical plants, mostly native to the Americas, including the pineapple and epiphytes (air plants) such as Spanish moss.
Bromide, salt of hydrobromic acid, especially potassium bromide, that acts as a depressant of brain function and the heart and is used in medicine as a sedative and a hypnotic.
Bromine, chemical element, symbol Br; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Bronchitis, inflammation of the bronchi, the main branches of the windpipe, caused by viruses or bacteria or by the inhalation of smoke.
Brontë sisters, 3 English novelists and poets, daughters of an Anglican clergyman.
Brontosaurus, large, plant-eating, four-legged dinosaur whose fossilized skeletons have been found in the western United States.
Bronx, The, one of the 5 boroughs of New York City, the only one situated on the mainland, separated from Manhattan Island by the Harlem River.
Bronze, corrosion-resistant alloy of copper and tin, used for machine parts, marine hardware, and casting statues.
Bronze Age, phase of history in which metal was first used to make tools and weapons.
Brook Farm (1841–47), Utopian community, founded at West Roxbury, Massachusetts, by Unitarian minister George Ripley.
Brooke, Rupert (1887–1915), English poet whose patriotic war sonnets were widely popular during World War I, author of Poems (1911) and 1914 and Other Poems (1915).
Brookhaven National Laboratory, center for nuclear research in Upton, Long Island, N.Y.
Brookings Institution, public service corporation founded in 1927 in Washington, D.C., for research and information on government and economic issues.
Brooklyn, one of the 5 boroughs of New York City, situated at the southwest extremity of Long Island.
Brooklyn Bridge, world's first steel-wire suspension bridge.
Brooks, Gwendolyn Elizabeth (1917– ), U.S. poet.
Brooks, Van Wyck (1886–1963), U.S. critic.
Broom, any of various European and Asian leguminous shrubs with yellow flowers that “explode” when bees land on them.
Broom, Robert (1866–1951), Scottish anatomist and paleontologist, discoverer of fossils of the humanlike Australopithecus.
Broun, Heywood Campbell (1888–1939), U.S. journalist.
Browder, Earl Russell (1891–1973), U.S.
Brown, Jim (1936– ), U.S. football player.
Brown, John (1800–59), U.S. abolitionist.
Brown lung, or byssinosis, lung disease caused by inhaling of cotton dust.
Brown recluse, poisonous spider (Loxosceles reclusa) of the southern United States, member of the family of brown spiders (Loxoscelidae).
Brown, Robert (1773–1858), Scottish physician and botanist.
Brown, Sir Arthur Whitten See: Alcock and Brown.
Brown-tail moth (Nygmia phaeorrhoea), member of the family of tussock moths (Liparidae, which also includes the gypsy moth), native to the northeastern United States, whose caterpillar is a serious pest to fruit and shade trees.
Brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum), bird of the mockingbird family (Mimidae), of the eastern United States and Canada.
Brown University, private coeducational school in Providence, R.I., established 1764.
Brownian motion See: Brown, Robert; Einstein, Albert.
Brownie, in British folklore, small creature that lives with a household and helps with chores while a family sleeps.
Brownies See: Girl Scouts and Girl Guides.
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett (1806–61), English lyric poet best known for Sonnets from the Portuguese (1850), inspired by her husband, Robert Browning, who had “rescued” her from illness and family tyranny in 1846.
Browning, Robert (1812–89), English poet.
Brownsville (pop. 260,120), city in southern Texas near the mouth of the Rio Grande River.
Brubeck, Dave (1920– ), U.S. pianist and composer in the classical and jazz idioms.
Bruce, Blanche Kelso (1841–98), public official, the first African American to serve a full term as a U.S. senator (1875–81).
Bruce, Robert the (1274–1329), claimant to the Scottish throne, which Edward I of England awarded to John de Baliol instead.
Bruce, Sir David (1855–1931), British physician and bacteriologist, specialist in tropical diseases.
Brucellosis, undulant fever, or Malta fever, infectious diseases of vertebrate animals, caused by any of a genus (Brucella) of bacteria.
Bruch, Max (1838–1920), German composer and conductor.
Bruckner, (Josef) Anton (1824–96), Austrian composer, noted for his 9 symphonies and his choral music—Masses in D Minor (1864), E Minor (1866), and F Minor (1867–71).
Bruegel, family of Flemish painters.
Brugge, or Bruges (pop. 116,700), well-preserved medieval city in northwestern Belgium.
Bruhn, Erik (1928–86), Danish ballet dancer.
Brulé, Étienne (1592?–1633), French-born Canadian explorer.
Brummell, Beau (George Bryan Brummell; 1778–1840), English dandy, friend of the Prince of Wales (later George IV), and an arbiter of fashion in Regency society.
Brunei, sultanate on the north coast of the island of Borneo, on the South China Sea.
Brunel, Sir Marc Isambard (1769–1849), French-born British engineer and inventor who built the world's first underwater tunnel (Thames Tunnel, 1825).
Brunelleschi, Filippo (1377–1446), first great Italian Renaissance architect.
Brunhild, Brünnehilde, or Brynhild, heroine of German and Scandinavian mythology dating back to A.D. 400.
Bruno, Giordano (1548–1600), Italian philosopher.
Brunswick (German: Braunschweig), descendants of the Wolf family.
Brussels (pop. c. 134,800), Belgian capital city, headquarters of the European Common Market and NATO.
Brussels griffon, breed of toy dog developed in 19th-century Belgium.
Brussels sprouts, variety of cabbage first grown on the outskirts of Brussels.
Brutus, Marcus Junius (85?–42 B.C.), Roman statesman who led the assassination plot against Julius Caesar.
Bryan, William Jennings (1860–1925), U.S. political leader, orator, and lawyer.
Bryant, Paul ‘Bear’ (1913–83), U.S. football coach.
Bryant, William Cullen (1794–1878), U.S. poet and journalist.
Bryce Canyon National Park, area of 5,835 acres in southwest Utah, created as a park in 1924.
Bryce, James, 1st Viscount (1838–1922), British politician and historian.
Bryophyte, most primitive division of land plants, including liverworts and mosses.
Bryozoan, freshwater and marine moss animals living in colonies encrusting seaweeds, stones, or the hulls of ships and sometimes forming lacy fans.
Brzezinski, Zbigniew (1928– ), Polish-born U.S. political scientist and national security adviser (1977–81), who advocated more vigorous anticommunist policies.
BTU See: British thermal unit.
Bubble chamber, device invented by Donald Glaser (1952) to observe the paths of subatomic particles.
Buber, Martin (1878–1965), Jewish philosopher, born in Austria.
Bubonic plague, disease transmitted to humans by fleas from infected rats.
Buchan, John, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir (1875–1940), Scottish author and politician.
Buchanan, James (1791–1868), 15th president of the United States. Buchanan held office during the years of mounting crisis that led up to the Civil War. The bitter divisions between North and South over the issue of slavery intensified during Buchanan's administration. When he left office in Mar. 1861, 7 slave states had already seceded from the Union and the nation was on the verge …
Bucharest (pop. c. 2,064,500), capital of Romania, on the Dîmbovita River.
Buchenwald, Nazi concentration camp set up near Weimar, Germany in 1937 to hold political and “non-Aryan” prisoners.
Buchman, Frank Nathan Daniel (1878–1961), evangelist and founder of the Moral Re-Armament movement (1938), commonly known as the MRA, an anticommunist grouping that grew rapidly and spread to over 50 countries.
Buchwald, Art (1925– ), U.S. political columnist.
Buck, Frank (1884–1950), U.S. wild-animal authority and collector.
Buck, Pearl Sydenstricker (1892–1973), U.S. author.
Buckeye See: Horse chestnut.
Buckingham, George Villiers, 1st Duke of (1592–1628), English nobleman whose influence over James I and Charles I inflamed antimonarchical feeling.
Buckingham Palace, London residence of the British royal family since 1837, built in 1703 and bought by George III from the Duke of Buckingham in 1761.
Buckley, William F(rank), Jr. (1925– ), U.S. author, editor, and lecturer.
Buckner, Simon Bolivar (1823–1914), U.S. politician and Confederate general.
Bucktails, political group active in New York (1816–30).
Buckthorn, common name for thorny shrub (Rhamnus cathartica) of the family Rhamnaceae.
Buckwheat, any of a genus (Fagopyrum) of common weeds, including dock and sorrel and a few tropical trees.
Budapest (pop. c. 1,992,300), capital of Hungary, on the Danube River.
Budd, Lanny See: Sinclair, Upton.
Buddha, Gautama (c.563–c.483 B.C.), founder of Buddhism.
Today the world of Buddhism has 2 main divisions, Theravada, the Southern School, covering Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia, and Mahayana, the Northern School, covering Nepal, Korea, China, and Japan. In the 2 schools can be counted 300–500 million followers, and there are many millions more who practice the teaching alone, for Buddhism has no service, ritual, or church in the Weste…
Budge, Donald (1915– ), U.S. tennis player.
Budget, document designed to estimate income and expenditures over a certain period of time, usually 1 year.
Budgie See: Parakeet.
Buenos Aires (pop. 2,908,000), capital of Argentina.
Buffalo, any of several humpbacked fishes (genus Ictiobus) of the sucker family.
Buffalo, any of several species of wild ox, members of the bovid family.
Buffalo (pop. 323,400), second largest city in the state of New York, situated at the eastern end of Lake Erie near Niagara Falls, in western New York.
Buffalo Bill (William Frederick Cody; 1846–1917), U.S. scout and showman.