Buñuel, Luis (1900–83), Spanish-Mexican director of films marked by fierce realism, social criticism, and wry humor.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Buffalo grass to Cannizzaro, Stanislao
Buffalo grass, low-growing grass (Buchloë dactyloides) that was once abundant on the central plains of North America and a main food of the bison and pronghorn.
Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de (1707–88), French naturalist who was the first modern taxonomist of the animal kingdom.
Bug, name commonly given to all insects but properly applied to the order Hemiptera.
Buganda See: Uganda.
Bugbane, any of several tall plants (genus Cimicifuga) of the buttercup family.
Bugging See: Wiretapping.
Bugle, wind instrument of the brass family, made of either copper or brass, with a conical bore and a cupshaped mouthpiece.
Buick, David Dunbar (1855–1929), Scottish-born U.S. plumber turned automobile maker.
Building See: Architecture.
Bulb, short, underground storage stem composed of many fleshy scale leaves that are swollen with stored food and an outer layer of protective scale leaves.
Bulbul, any of various species of tropical songbirds of the family Pycnonotidae, native to Africa and southern Asia.
Bulfinch, Charles (1763–1844), U.S. architect.
Bulganin, Nikolai Alexandrovich (1895–1975), Soviet leader.
Bulgaria, country in eastern Europe, in the Balkan mountains; bordered on the east by the Black Sea, on the west by Yugoslavia and Macedonia, on the south by Greece and Turkey, and on the north by Rumania, the Danube River forming the border. The climate is continental in the north, with cold winters and hot summers, temperate continental in the center, and mediterranean south of the Rhodope Mount…
Bulge, Battle of the, last major western counteroffensive by the Germans in World War II.
Bulimia, eating disorder characterized by insatiable appetite; eating binges are generally followed by self-induced vomiting.
Bull, John See: John Bull.
Bull Moose Party See: Progressive Party.
Bull Run, Battles of, 2 clashes in the American Civil War around Manassas Junction near Bull Run Creek, 25 mi (40 km) southwest of Washington, D.C.
Bull terrier, muscular dog that combines the strength of the bulldog and the speed and intelligence of the white English terrier, the 2 breeds from which it was first developed in 1835.
Bulldog, medium-sized, low-slung dog originally bred in England for bull-baiting and related sports (outlawed in 1835).
Bullfighting, Spanish national sport and spectacle, also popular in Latin America.
Bullfinch, any of several species of small songbirds native to Europe and Asia, named for their short, stout bill.
Bullfrog, large North American frog (Rana catesbeiana) named for its booming call, which is made by passing air up and down the windpipe, the swollen airsacs acting as resonators.
Bullhead, North American freshwater catfish (genus Ictalurus) with broad head and tapering tail.
Bullmastiff, breed of dog obtained by crossing the bulldog and the mastiff.
Bulrush, any of a genus (Scirpus) of sedges growing in water or marshes, up to 6 ft (2 m) high, with narrow leaves and spiky flowers.
Bulwer-Lytton, Edward George Earle Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton (1803–73), English author and politician.
Bulwer, Sir Henry See: Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.
Bumblebee, insect belonging to the family Apidae, subfamily Bombinae, having a hairy coat, typically black with orange or yellow stripes, and a sting.
Bunchberry, common name for a low-growing woody perennial (Cornus canadensis) related to dogwood.
Bunche, Ralph Johnson (1904–71), U.S. diplomat.
Bunin, Ivan Alekseyevich (1870–1953), Russian novelist, short-story writer, and poet.
Bunker Hill, Battle of, one of the first engagements in the American Revolutionary War (June 17, 1775), involving some 2,300 British troops under generals Thomas Gage and Sir William Howe, and some 1,500 inexperienced American volunteers under Colonel William Prescott, Major-General Israel Putman, and General J.
Bunsen burner, gas burner consisting of a metal tube with a gas inlet and adjustable openings for air near the lower end.
Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm Eberhard (1811–99), German chemist who conducted important work on organo-arsenic compounds and, with GR.
Bunting, finchlike bird (especially, genus Passerina), with a conical seed-cracking bill.
Bunyan, John (1628–88), English author.
Buonarroti, Michelangelo See: Michelangelo.
Burbank (pop. 93,643), city in southern California, 12 mi (19 km) north of Los Angeles in the San Fernando Valley.
Burbank, Luther (1849–1926), U.S. horticulturalist who developed more than 800 varieties of plants, including the Burbank potato.
Burchfield, Charles Ephraim (1893–1967), U.S. watercolorist known for his midwestern landscapes and small-town scenes.
Burdock, any of a genus (Arctium) of plants with hairy stems, heart-shaped leaves, and burrs.
Burger, Warren Earl (1907– ), chief justice of the United States Supreme Court 1969–86.
Burgess, Anthony (1917–93), English writer, best known for A Clockwork Orange (1962), a bitter satire about a violent gang leader in a corrupt, violent society of the near future.
Burghley, Lord (1520–98), English statesman.
Burgoyne, John (1722–92), British general in the American Revolutionary War.
Burgundy (French: Bourgogne), historic region of eastern France, occupying what are now the departments of Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Nièvre, and Yonne.
Burke, Edmund (1729–97), Irish-born British statesman, political philosopher, and orator.
Burke, Martha Jane See: Calamity Jane.
Burkina Faso, land-locked country in West Africa known as Upper Volta until 1984. It is bounded on the west and north by Mali, on the east by Niger and Benin, and on the south by Togo, Ghana, and the Ivory Coast. Burkina Faso is a broad expanse too dry to support much vegetation. Water is scarce. Temperatures range from 68ÉF to 95ÉF (20ÉC–35ÉC). The largest ethni…
Burleigh, Lord See: Burghley, Lord.
Burlington (pop. 131,439), city in northwest Vermont; seat of Chittenden County.
Burma See: Myanmar.
Burnet, Sir Frank Macfarlane (1899–1985), Australian physician and virologist.
Burnett, Frances (Eliza) Hodgson (1849–1924), English-born U.S. author.
Burney, Fanny (Frances Burney; 1752–1840), English novelist and diarist.
Burnham, Daniel Hudson (1846–1912), U.S. architect, a pioneer of city planning.
Burns, Arthur Frank (1904–87), Austrian-born U.S. economist.
Burns, Robert (1759–96), Scottish poet.
Burnside, Ambrose Everett (1824–81), Union general in the U.S.
Burr, Aaron (1756–1836), U.S. lawyer and politician, vice president under Thomas Jefferson 1801–5, also known for having killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel (1804).
Burroughs, Edgar Rice (1875–1950), U.S. writer of adventure novels.
Burroughs, John (1837–1921), U.S. naturalist and author, known for his philosophical nature essays.
Burroughs, William (1855–98), U.S. inventor, best known for his practical and commercially successful adding machine (1898).
Bursitis, inflammation of a bursa (fibrous sac containing synovial fluid that reduces friction where tendons move over bones), commonly caused by excessive wear and tear or by rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or bacteria.
Burton, Sir Richard Francis (1821–90), English explorer, writer, and linguist.
Burundi, one of Africa's smallest states, bordered on the east by Tanzania, on the west by Zaïre, on the north by Rwanda, and on the southwest by Lake Tanganyika. The capital, situated alongside the lake, is Bujumbura. The climate is tropical, with a rainy season from Oct. to April and a dry season in June, July, and Aug. The Hutu and Tutsi are the country's main ethnic groups…
Burying beetle, insect of the carrion beetle family (Silphidae).
Bush, George Herbert Walker (1924-), 41st president of the United States. Bush's 2 terms as vice president to a popular president and his promise of “No new taxes” helped sweep him into the White House. Almost from the beginning of his time in office, Bush faced a series of crises both foreign and domestic, yet maintained a high level of popularity until well into his third ye…
Bush, Vannevar (1890–1974), U.S. electrical engineer, director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development in World War II.
Bushmaster, large tropical American pit viper (Lachesis muta), which may grow up to 12 ft (4 m) long and feeds mainly on small mammals.
Business cycle, periodic fluctuation in the economy of an industrialized nation, between prosperity and recession or depression, with marked variations in growth rate and employment levels.
Business law See: Law.
Bustard, any of Otididae family of large-bodied, strong-legged birds of the Old World and Australia, usually with drab plumage but sometimes with ornamental plumes on the head and neck.
Butane and propane, odorless, colorless, flammable gases.
Butler, Benjamin Franklin (1818–93), U.S. politician and Union general in the Civil War.
Butler, Nicholas Murray (1862–1947), U.S. educator.
Butler, Samuel (1835–1902), English novelist.
Butler, Samuel (1612–80), English poet, author of Hudibras (1663–78), a mock- heroic, anti-Puritan satire.
Butte (pop. 33,336), city in southwestern Montana; seat of Silver Bow County, situated on Silver Bow Creek on a plateau in the Rocky Mountains.
Butter, dairy product made by churning milk or cream, containing fat, protein, and water.
Buttercup, any of 300 species of flower (genus Ranunculus), native to temperate North America; especially the familiar gold flower of meadows and pastures.
Butterfish, any of several fish of the family Stromateidae.
Butterfly, flying insect of the order Lepidoptera (which also includes moths), characterized by wide, brightly colored wings.
Butternut, or white walnut, tree (Juglans cinerea) of the walnut family.
Butterwort, insect-eating plant (genus Pinguicula) that grows in damp places in Eurasia and the Americas.
Buttress See: Architecture.
Buxtehude, Dietrich (1637?–1707), German composer and organist, possibly born in Denmark.
Buzzard, any of a group of medium-sized hawks of the family Accipitridae, identifiable by their soaring flight, widespread wings, and broad tail.
Byelorussia, or Belarus, republic, also known as White Russia. Independent country in eastern Europe, bordered by Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Latvia and Lithuania. Though mainly a plain, Byelorussia has hilly regions and extensive marshes, particularly in the southwest. The climate is mild. There are extensive waterways, in which the Dnieper, Pripet, Berezina, and Western Dvina rivers are linked by c…
Byrd, Richard Evelyn (1888–1957), U.S. aviator and pioneer of exploration and research in Antarctica.
Byrd, Robert Carlyle (1917– ), U.S. legislator.
Byrd, William (1652–1704) and William II (1674–1744), colonial Virginian father and son.
Byrd, William (1543–1623), English composer.
Byrne, Jane (1934– ), U.S. politician, mayor of Chicago (1979–83).
Byrnes, James Francis (1879–1972), U.S. statesman.
Byron, George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron (1788–1824), English poet, a leading figure of European Romanticism.
Byssinosis See: Brown lung.
The minor arts, including ivory carving, silverwork, illuminated manuscripts, and textiles, became very sophisticated. Stylized naturalistic motifs and lavish decorative color were used. The period after 1204 saw a second great flowering of Byzantine art, known as the Second Golden Age. In church building the favored type, initiated by Basil I, was a plan based on a circle inscribed in a square, a…
Byzantine Empire, historical term for the successor state to the Roman Empire in the East. Its capital was Constantinople (now Istanbul), founded by Constantine I in 330 at the site of the ancient Greek Byzantium. The heartlands of the empire were Asia Minor and the Balkans, but at its height it ruled southern Spain, Italy, Sicily, northern Africa, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, the Crimean coast, Cypru…
Byzantium See: Byzantine Empire; Istanbul.
C, third letter of the alphabet, derived from the letter gimel of the ancient Semitic alphabet and a rounded form of the Greek gamma.
Cádiz (pop. 154,100), ancient city and port in southwest Spain, on the Atlantic coast northwest of Gibraltar.
Cabal, secret group or organization engaged in intrigues; also applied to the intrigues themselves.
Cabala, or Kabbalah (Hebrew, “tradition”), body of esoteric Jewish mystical doctrines dealing with the manifestations of and revelation of God.
Cabbage, (Brassica olearacea), biennial vegetable from which other brassicas, such as kale, cauliflower, and broccoli, have been developed.
Cabbage palm, name used for various palm trees with edible leaf buds, especially, the palmetto (Sabal palmetto), a common fan palm ranging from North Carolina through Central America.
Cabell, (James) Branch, (1879–1958), U.S. novelist, who combined an ironic, often antiromantic style with a strong element of fantasy in plots and settings.
Caber, trunk of a young tree, tossed in the Scottish sport of tossing the caber.
Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Núñez (1490?–1557?), Spanish explorer.
Cabinda (pop. 163,000), city and district in Angola.
Cabinet, top-level advisory council to the head of state, usually composed of the heads of the major executive departments.
Cable car, vehicle to carry passengers up steep gradients.
Cable, electric, insulated conductor used to carry electric power or electric signals. A cable consists of a core conducting metal, usually of several wires twisted or stranded together, surrounded by insulating material. The conducting metal is usually copper, aluminum, or steel. The insulation is most often made of plastic or rubber. Multicore cables contain many cores, each insulated from the o…
Cable, George Washington (1844–1925), U.S. author noted for his depiction of New Orleans and Creole life in works like Old Creole Days (1879) and The Grandissimes (1880).
Cable television, or CATV (community antenna television), broadcasting by means of coaxial cables rather than airwaves, used originally in areas where mountains or tall buildings made television reception poor or impossible, but now expanding throughout the United States because of the multiplicity of channels and programs it makes available.
Cabot, John (Giovanni Caboto; c.1450-c.1499), Italian navigator and explorer, probably the first European to reach the North American mainland.
Cabot, Sebastian (1476–1557), explorer and navigator, son of John Cabot.
Cabral, Pedro Alvares (1467–1520), Portuguese navigator.
Cabrillo, Juan Rodríguez (João Rodrigues Cabrilho; d. c.1543), Portuguese explorer in the service of Spain, best known for his discovery of California.
Cabrini, Saint Frances Xavier (1850–1917), Italian-American nun, first U.S. citizen to be canonized (1946).
Cacao (Theobroma cacao), tropical tree that produces cacao or cocoa beans.
Cactus, name for over 1,500 kinds of succulent prickly plant of the Cactaceae family nearly all native to America.
Cadence, in musical harmony, successive chores that usually bring a passage of music to a close.
Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe (1658–1730), French colonial governor and founder of Detroit (1701).
Cadmium, chemical element, symbol Cd; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Cadmus, in Greek mythology, son of Agenor and founder of Thebes.
Caecilian, wormlike amphibian that lives in underground burrows.
Caedmon (7th century), illiterate herdsman, English poet who reputedly became a poet overnight after a stranger commanded him in a dream to “sing of the beginning of created things.” Author of the Caedmon Hymn, he spent the rest of his life rendering Bible history into verse.
Caesar, (Gaius) Julius (c.100–44 B.C.), Roman general, politician, and writer.
Caffeine, slightly bitter alkaloid used as a stimulant and diuretic and found in coffee, tea, cocoa, and other plants; poisonous when taken in large doses.
Cage, John (1912–92), U.S. experimental composer and musical theoretician.
Cagney, James (1904–86), U.S. film actor who played cocky, aggressive tough guys in such classic gangster movies as The Public Enemy (1931) and The Roaring Twenties (1939).
Cahokia Mounds, group of prehistoric mounds, mostly in the form of truncated pyramids, near East St.
Cahow (Pterodroma cahow), bird in the petrel family (Procellariidae).
Cain, in the Old Testament, eldest son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4:1), a tiller of the ground.
Cain, James Mallahan (1892–1977), U.S. writer of crime novels admired for their accuracy of dialogue and characterization.
Cairn terrier, breed of dog that originated in Scotland.
Cairo, or Al-Qhirah (pop. 6,663,000), capital of Egypt.
Caisson, concrete or steel box, open at both ends, used in civil engineering when excavation or construction must be carried out underwater, particularly in sinking foundations for bridges.
Caisson disease See: Bends.
Cajuns (from “Acadian”), descendants of expatriate French-Canadians, living in Louisiana.
Calabash (Crescentia cujete), tree of tropical America, the woody shell of whose gourdlike fruit is used as a waterproof container.
Caladium, genus of tropical American plant in the Arum family (Aracaea).
Calais (pop. 76,500), French seaport on the Pas de Calais (Strait of Dover), 170 mi (274 km) from Paris and 21 mi (34 km) from Dover.
Calamity Jane (Martha Jane Canary Burk; 1852–1903), frontier-town prostitute and campfollower who roamed the West in male garb.
Calcination, process of heating used in chemistry and industry to convert salts containing oxides and to remove volatile constituents from substances.
Calcite, soft mineral, consisting of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), found mainly in limestone.
Calcium, chemical element, symbol Ca; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Calcium carbide, crystalline compound (CaC2) made from calcium and carbon.
Calcium carbonate, mineral (CaCO3) abundant in nature.
Calculator, mechanical or electronic machine for performing numerical calculations.
Calculus, branch of mathematics dealing with calculating rates of change (differential calculus) and determining functions from information about their rate of change (integral calculus). Differential calculus is used to calculate accelerations, velocities, slopes of curves, and maximum and minimum values, based on experimental or theoretical relationships expressed as continuous equations. If a r…
Calcutta (pop. 3,305,000), capital of West Bengal state, the leading transportation, industrial, financial, and commercial center of eastern India, and the largest city in India, situated on the Houghly River, in the Ganges delta, 80 mi (130 km) north of the Bay of Bengal. Calcutta is accessible to oceangoing vessels and has road and rail links with the whole of northern India, and an internationa…
Caldecott, Randolph (1846–86), British painter and illustrator, particularly of children's books.
Calder, Alexander (1898–1976), U.S. abstract sculptor and creator of the mobile.
Calderón de la Barca, Pedro (1600–81), Spanish playwright and poet.
Calderone, Mary Steichen (1904– ) U.S. physician, health official, and leader in sex education.
Caldwell, Erskine Preston (1903–87), U.S. author noted for his portrayal of poor Southern whites in short stories and novels such as Tobacco Road (1932), God's Little Acre (1933), and Trouble in July (1940).
Caldwell, Sarah (1924– ), U.S. conductor and opera producer.
Caledonia, ancient Roman name for what is now Scotland.
Calendar, method of reckoning days and months of the year.
Calendula, or pot marigold (Calendula officinalis), annual plant.
Calgary (pop. 754,000), city in southern Alberta, Canada, at the junction of the Bow and Elbow rivers, at a height of 3,438 ft (1,048 m).
Calhoun, John Caldwell (1782–1850), U.S. congressman, secretary of war, senator, and vice-president known for his lifelong defense of southern interests.
California, state in the southwest corner of the United States; bordered by Oregon in the north, Nevada and Arizona in the east, Mexico in the south, and the Pacific Ocean in the west. Redwood forests and the San Andreas fault, origin of periodic earth tremors and occasional earthquakes, are important features of the Coast Ranges along the Pacific. The Sierra Nevada range to the east is the locati…
California, University of, large U.S. state university system, founded 1868.
Californium, chemical element, symbol Cf; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Caligula (Gaius Caesar; A.D. 12–41), nickname (meaning “little boots”) of cruel and despotic Roman emperor (37–41).
Calla, plant of genus Calla or Zantedeschia of the arum family (Araceae).
Callaghan, (Leonard) James (1912– ), prime minister of the United Kingdom 1976–79.
Callaghan, Morley Edward (1903–90), Canadian novelist and short story writer influenced by the style of Ernest Hemingway.
Callao (pop. 515,200), Peruvian seaport located 8 mi (13 km) west of the capital city of Lima.
Callas, Maria (Maria Kalogeropoulos; 1923–77), leading Greek-American operatic soprano.
Calligraphy, art of penmanship.
Calliope, keyboard instrument dating from 1855 and much used in circuses and amusement parks.
Calms, Regions of, areas characterized by little or no wind.
Calorie, amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one centigrade degree (more precisely, from 14.5C to 15.5C).
Calvary, or Golgotha, Jerusalem hill site of the crucifixion of Jesus.
Calvert, English family that founded and owned colonial Maryland.
Calvin, John (1509–64), French theologian.
Calvin, Melvin (1911– ), U.S. biochemist who won the 1961 Nobel Prize for chemistry, having led the team that unraveled the details of the chemistry of photosynthesis.
Calvinism, Protestant doctrine formulated by John Calvin and stated chiefly in his Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536).
Calvino, Italo (1923–85), Italian writer notable for his use of fantasy.
Calypso, West Indies musical style notable for its lyrics, which are usually improvised and often humorous or ironic.
Cambodia See: Kampuchea.
Cambrian, earliest period of the Paleozoic Era, dated roughly 570–500 million years ago, immediately preceding the Ordovician period.
Cambridge (pop. 98,700), English market town, 51 mi (32 km) from London, and home of the Cambridge University.
Cambridge (pop. 95,802), city in Massachusetts on the Charles River opposite Boston; seat of Middlesex County.
Cambridge University, one of the world's leading universities, at Cambridge, England.
Camcorder See: Video camera.
Camden (pop. 87,492), city in New Jersey on the Delaware River opposite Philadelphia.
Camel, 2 species of haired, cud-chewing animals with humped backs, long necks, and hooves.
Camellia, any of a genus (Camellia) of evergreen trees and shrubs of Asia that have large fragrant red, pink, or white flowers.
Camelot, in Arthurian legend, court of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.
Camera, device for forming an optical image of a subject and recording it on a photographic film or plate or (in television cameras) on a photoelectric mosaic.
Cameron, Julia Margaret (1815–79), Indian-born British pioneer photographer, best known for her portraits of such Victorians as Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Ellen Terry.
Cameroon, republic in West Africa. Cameroon is bordered by the Gulf of Guinea (west and southwest), Nigeria (northwest), Chad (northeast), the Central African Republic (east), and the Congo, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea (south). The narrow coastal plain of swamps and dense jungle rises to a plateau of savanna and forest some 2,000 ft (610 m) above sea level. The country's highest peak is th…
Camomile, also spelled chamomile, any of a genus (Anthemis) of various strong-scented herbs with daisylike flowers.
Camorra, Italian secret society started in the Kingdom of Naples (1830).
Camp David, woodland camp in the Catoctin Mountains in Maryland near Washington, D.C., that has been used by U.S. presidents since Franklin D.
Camp David Agreement, peace treaty formulated in 1979 at Camp David by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin with the assistance of U.S.
Camp Fire, organization for children in the United States.
Camp, Walter Chauncey (1859–1925), father of American football.
Campanella, Roy (1921– ), one of the most popular and successful catchers in baseball history.
Campanile, bell tower, usually adjacent to a church.
Campanula, plant genus of the family Campanulaceae containing some 700 species of mostly herbaceous (nonwoody) plants.
Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry (1836–1908), British prime minister 1905–08 and leader of the Liberal party from 1899.
Campbell, Donald Malcolm (1921–67), English speedboat racer.
Campeche, state in southeastern Mexico, on the Yucatán Peninsula.
Camphor, white, crystalline compound (C10H16O) distilled from the wood of a species of laurel tree (Cinnamonum camphora).
Campin, Robert (1375?–1444), Flemish painter best known for his religious works.
Campion, plant of genera Lychnis or Silene grown for showy flowers.
Camus, Albert (1913–60), French writer and philosopher.
Canaan, early name for Palestine.
Canaanites, people who settled Canaan, the biblical name for Palestine, c.3000 B.C.
Canada, independent nation in North America, encompassing a land mass of 3,851,809 sq mi (9,976,185 sq km), making it the largest country in the Western Hemisphere and the second largest country in the world after Russia. Canada is an autonomous federation with 10 provinces and 2 federally administered territories. It is formally a constitutional monarchy under the British Crown and a member of th…
Canada goose (Branta canadensis), large migratory bird common to North America, Greenland, and parts of Asia.
Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), weed native to Europe and Asia and now widespread in the northern United States and southern Canada.
Canadian literature, body of literary works reflecting the English and French heritage of Canada, often focusing on national identity and duality.
Canadian Mounted Police See: Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Canadian Shield, or Laurentian Plateau, geologic designation of that area of North America (including the eastern half of Canada and small portions of the United States) that has remained more or less stable since Precambrian times.
Canal, artificial waterway used for transportation, drainage, and irrigation.
Canal Zone See: Panama Canal Zone.
Canary, name of several small song birds, particularly a finch native to the Canary Islands (Serinus canarius).
Canary Islands, group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of Africa that make up 2 Spanish provinces.
Canary, Martha Jane See: Calamity Jane.
Canberra (pop. 310,100), capital city of the Commonwealth of Australia and the country's largest inland city.
Cancer, group of diseases in which some body cells change their nature, start to divide uncontrollably, and may revert to an undifferentiated type. They form a malignant tumor that enlarges and may spread to adjacent tissues or through blood and lymph systems to other parts of the body. The American Cancer Society has listed 7 warning signals: (1) change in bowel or bladder habits, (2) a sore that…
Cancer Society of America, voluntary organization founded in 1913 to provide a program of services for cancer patients and their families.
Cancer, Tropic of See: Tropic of Cancer.
Candela, or new candle (symbol: cd), basic unit of measurement of luminous intensity, or candle power.
Candlepower See: Candela.
Candy, any of a great variety of sweet confections.
Candytuft, any of several species of a genus (Iberis) of low-growing, Old World plants of the mustard family.
Canetti, Elias (1905–94), Bulgarian-born author of prose and plays in the German language.
Canine See: Teeth.
Canis Major, constellation of stars visible in the Southern Hemisphere.
Canis Minor, constellation appearing north of Canis Major in the Southern Hemisphere.
Cankerworm, or measuring worm, any of various larvae of insects, especially moths.
Canna, any of a genus (Canna) of tropical plants of the family Cannaceae.
Cannabis, tops and leaves of the female plant of Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa), from which marijuana, a mood-altering substance, is obtained.
Cannae, ancient town in southern Italy, site of Hannibal's decisive defeat of the Romans (216 B.C.).
Cannes (pop. 72,300), French resort and seaport on the Mediterranean coast.
Cannibalism, consumption by humans of human flesh, common throughout the world at various times in the past and still occasionally practiced, though now generally taboo.
Canning, process of preserving foods in sealed metal containers, developed by the French chef Nicolas Appert in 1809 and first patented in the United States by Ezra Daggett in 1815.
Cannizzaro, Stanislao (1826–1910), Italian chemist, teacher, and activist in Garibaldi's movement for Italian unification.