Müller, Karl Alexander (1797–1840), German philologist and archeologist.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Mudpuppy to Nebula
Müller, Paul Hermann (1899–1965), Swiss chemist.
Mudpuppy, or water dog (Necturus maculosus), salamander growing up to 2 ft (0.6 m) that lives in many North American rivers and streams.
Mugabe, Robert Gabriel (1924– ), president (1987– ) and prime minister (1980– ) of Zimbabwe.
Mughal Empire See: Mogul Empire.
Mugwump, term for independent voter or political fence straddler.
Muhammad (570?–632), prophet founder of Islam. Born in Mecca into the ruling Qureish tribe, Muhammad spent his early years as a merchant. At the age of 40 he had a vision of the archangel Gabriel bidding him go forth and preach. His teachings are recorded in the Koran, which Muslims believe is the word of God. Muhammad proclaimed himself the messenger of the one true god, Allah. At first he…
Muhammad Ali See: Ali, Muhammad.
Muhammad, Elijah (Elijah Poole; 1897–1975), U.S.
Muhammad II (1430?–81), sultan and ruler of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey).
Muhammad Reza Pahlavi See: Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Muhammadan art See: Islamic art.
Muir, John (1838–1914), Scottish-born U.S. naturalist and writer, an advocate of forest conservation.
Mukden See: Shenyang.
Mulberry, medium-sized deciduous or evergreen tree (family Moraceae) that carries edible fruits, such as berries, figs, and breadfruit.
Mule, infertile offspring of a male donkey and a mare (female horse).
Mule deer, medium-sized deer (Odocoileus hemionus), of the western United States, closely related to the Virginia, or white-tailed, deer.
Mullein, large herbal plants (genus Verbascum) of the figwort family.
Muller, Hermann Joseph (1890–1967), U.S. geneticist awarded the 1946 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine for his work showing that X-rays greatly accelerate mutation processes.
Mullet, any of several species of fish of either the mullet or goatfish families.
Mulliken, Robert Sanderson (1896–1986), U.S. chemist and physicist awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize for chemistry for his work on the nature of chemical bonding and hence on the electronic structure of molecules.
Mulroney, Brian (1939– ), prime minister of Canada (1984–93).
Multiple sclerosis, degenerative disease of the brain and spinal cord in which myelin sheath around nerve fibers is destroyed.
Mumford, Lewis (1895–1990), U.S. social critic and historian concerned with the relationship between people and environment, especially in urban planning.
Mummy, corpse preserved, particularly by embalming.
Mumps, common viral infection causing swelling of the parotid salivary gland.
Munch, Edvard (1863–1944), Norwegian painter and printmaker.
Munich, or München (pop. 1,236,500), capital of Bavaria, southwestern Germany, on the Isar River about 30 mi (48 km) north of the Alps.
Munich Agreement, pact signed Sept. 30, 1938, prior to World War II, forcing Czechoslovakia to surrender its Sudetenland to Nazi Germany.
Municipal government See: City government.
Munro, Hector Hugh (1870–1916), British writer who wrote under the pen name Saki, known for his inventive, satirical, and often fantastic short stories.
Munsee, Native American group consisting of the Wolf clan of the Delaware tribe.
Muppets, puppet family created by the master puppeteer Jim Henson in 1955. Henson was strongly influenced by the diversity of the European puppet theater. The first network television appearance of the Muppets occurred on “The Steve Allen Show” in 1956. The Muppets continued to grow in popularity through the early 1960s but it was their appearance on the Children's Television …
Murasaki, Shikibu, or Lady Murasaki (978–1026?), pseudonym of Japanese court figure and author of The Tale ofGenji, one of the first great works of fiction written in Japanese.
Murat, Joachim (1767–1815), French marshal under Napoleon Bonaparte and king of Naples (1808–15).
Murdoch, Iris (1919– ), Irish-born British novelist.
Muriatic acid See: Hydrochloric acid.
Murillo, Bartolomé Estéban (1617–82), baroque painter, Spain's most famous in his time, known as the Raphael of Seville.
Murmansk (pop. 472,000), city in northwestern Russia, lying on the Kola Gulf of the Barents Sea, within the Arctic Circle.
Murphy, Audie (1924–71), U.S. soldier and actor.
Murray, Philip (1886–1952), Scottish-born U.S. labor leader.
Murray River, Australia's chief river, an important source of irrigation and hydroelectricity.
Murre, seabirds (genus Uria) in the auk family.
Murrow, Edward R(oscoe) (1908–65), U.S. newscaster.
Muscat, or Maskat (pop. 30,000), capital of Oman.
Muscle, contractile tissue that produces movement in the body.
Muscular dystrophy, group of inherited diseases in which muscle fibers are abnormal and become wasted.
Muses, in Greek mythology, 9 patron goddesses of the arts, worshiped especially near Mt.
Museum of Modern Art, one of the world's pre-eminent museums of modern art, New York City.
Museveni, Yoweri Kaguta (1944– ), president of Uganda since 1986.
Mushroom, popular name given to an umbrella-shaped gill fungi.
Musial, Stan(ley) (1920– ), U.S. baseball player.
Music, sound organized and arranged as a means of expression and for sensual and intellectual pleasure. Of the major arts, music may be the most ancient, because the urge to sing and dance in response to feelings of anger, joy, or sorrow springs from the body itself. Music may also be described as sound shaped by time. Its 2 most important elements are rhythm and melody, rhythm being organized in …
Musil, Robert (1880–1942), Austrian writer.
Musk deer (Moschus moshiferus), a deer of the family Cervidae.
Musk hog See: Peccary.
Musk ox (Ovibos moschatus, shaggy-furred, hoofed animal of Arctic America, related to sheep and goats.
Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), the largest fish of the pike family.
Musket, shoulder firearm developed in Spain in the 16th century and used into the 19th century.
Muskmelon, edible fruit of certain plants (Cucumis melo) belonging to the gourd family.
Muskrat, or musquash, aquatic rodent of North America, Ondrata ziethica, up to 2 ft (6 m) long.
Muslims, practitioners of the religion of Islam as preached by the prophet Muhammad in the 600s.
Mussel, two-shelled mollusk that lives in masses on most rocky shores and is exposed at low tide.
Musset, (Louis-Charles) Alfred de (1810–57), French romantic poet and playwright.
Mussolini, Benito (1883–1945), founder of Fascism, dictator of Italy (1924–43).
Mussorgsky, Modest (1839–81), Russian composer, one of the first to develop a style around characteristically Russian idioms.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha See: Atatürk, Kemal.
Mustard, any of several herbs (genus Brassica) of the Cruciferae family.
Mustard gas See: Chemical and biological warfare.
Mutsuhito (1852–1912), emperor of Japan (1867–1912); his regal title was Meiji (“enlightened rule”).
Mutual fund, investment company that pools its shareholders' funds and invests them in a broad range of stocks and shares.
My Lai, hamlet in South Vietnam where nearly 350 Vietnamese civilians were massacred by U.S. soldiers in 1968.
Myanmar, country in Southeast Asia, formerly called Burma, bordered by India, Bangladesh, and the Bay of Bengal on the west, by China on the north and northeast, by Laos and Thailand on the east, and by the Andaman Sea on the south. The capital is Yangon, formerly called Rangoon. Myanmar's climate is typical of the tropical monsoon regions of southeast Asia and India. The rainy season lasts…
Myasthenia gravis, disease of the junctions between the peripheral nerves and the muscles, probably due to abnormal immunity and characterized by muscle fatigue.
Mycenae, city of Bronze Age Greece.
Myna, several birds of the starling family, native to Indian and Asian forests but dispersed to the Pacific tropics.
Myocarditis, inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium).
Myoelectricity See: Artificial limb.
Myopia, commonly called nearsightedness, inability to clearly see objects at a distance.
Myrdal, Gunnar (1898–1987), Swedish economist who wrote a classic work on race relations, An American Dilemma (1944), an influential study of Third World economic development, Asian Drama (1968), and Challenge of World Poverty (1970).
Myrtle, common name for the Myrtaceae family of trees and shrubs.
Mysteries, secret religious cults of ancient Greece and Rome; their rites were revealed only to initiated persons.
Mystery play, medieval religious drama based on biblical themes, chiefly those concerning the Nativity, the Passion, and the Resurrection.
Mysticism, experience of a transcendental union in this life with God, the divine, through meditation and other disciplines.
Mythology, stories or explanations of the origin and meaning of the world and the universe and their relation to a particular culture or civilization.
N, 14th letter of the English alphabet, corresponds with the 14th Semitic letter nun, denoting a fish.
N'Djamena (pop. 594,000), capital and largest city of the North African republic of Chad, on the Chari and Logone rivers in the southwestern part of the country.
NAACP See: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Nabokov, Vladimir (1899–1977), Russian-born U.S. novelist and critic.
Nadelman, Elie (1882–1946), Polish-born U.S. sculptor.
Nader, Ralph (1934– ), U.S. consumer crusader and lawyer.
Nadir, in astronomy, point on the celestial sphere directly opposite the zenith, that is, directly below an observer.
Nadir Shah (1688–1747), shah of Iran (1736–47), often called the Napoleon of Iran.
Nagana See: Tsetse fly.
Nagasaki (pop. 439,100), city on western Kyushu Island, Japan, capital of Nagasaki prefecture.
Nagoya (pop. 2,095,400), capital of Aichi prefecture, Japan, on the island of Honshu.
Nagy, Imre (1895?–1958), Hungarian communist leader and premier (1953–55).
Nahum, Book of, seventh of the Old Testament Minor Prophets, the oracles of the prophet Nahum.
Naiad See: Nymph.
Nail, metal shaft, pointed at one end and usually with a head at the other, that can be hammered into pieces of material, usually wood, to fasten them together.
Nail, thin, horny plate growing on the ends of the fingers and toes of humans and other primates.
Naipaul, V(idiadhar) S(urajprasad) (1932– ), Indian writer, born in Trinidad, who has lived in England since 1950.
Nairobi (pop. 1,162,200), capital of Kenya.
Naismith, James (1861–1939), inventor of basketball.
Najiabullah, Mohammad (1948–96), political leader of Afghanistan (1986–93).
Namaliu, Rabbie (1947– ), prime minister of the south Pacific nation of Papua New Guinea (1988–92).
Namibia, Republic of, in southern Africa, an area covering about 318,261 sq mi (824,292 sq km), bordered by Angola, Zambia, Botswana, South Africa, and the Atlantic Ocean. The capital is Windhoek. From the Namib Desert, which stretches north-south on the Atlantic coast, the land rises to a plateau averaging 3,500 ft (1,067 m) above sea level covered by rough grass and scrub. The Kalahari, a desert…
Namphy, Henri (1933– ), military ruler of Haiti 1986–88.
Nan-ching See: Nanjing.
Nancy (pop. 96,300), capital of Meurthe-et-Moselle département in the Lorraine region of northeastern France, on the Meurthe River.
Nanjing, or Nanking (pop. 2,500,000), industrial and manufacturing city on the Yangtze River in east-central China.
Nanking See: Nanjing.
Nansen, Fridtjof (1861–1930), Norwegian explorer, scientist, and humanitarian.
Nantes (pop. 252,000), port city in western France near the Loire River, capital of the Loire- Atlantique department.
Nantes, Edict of, proclamation of religious toleration for French Protestants (Huguenots) issued in the city of Nantes by Henry IV in 1598.
Nantucket Island, island 25 mi (40 km) south of Cape Cod, Mass., across Nantucket Sound.
Napalm, mixture of gasoline and thickeners, used in flame throwers and incendiary bombs.
Naphtha, volatile inflammable hydrocarbon liquid (distilled from substances that yield carbon).
Napier, John (1550–1617), Scottish mathematician, the inventor of logarithms.
Naples (pop. 1,071,700), third-largest city in Italy, capital of the region of Campania, on the Bay of Naples, 120 mi (193 km) southeast of Rome.
Naples, Bay of, bay of the Tyrrhenian Sea (arm of the Mediterranean west of Italy), southwest of Naples.
Naples, Kingdom of, region once comprised of all Italy south of the Papal States, including Sicily. It emerged after the conquests by the Norman Robert Guiscard in the 11th century; his nephew, Roger II, took the title King of Sicily and Apulia (1130). Naples was ruled in turn by the Hohen-staufens, the Angevins, the Aragonese, and the Spanish. The Austrians conquered the kingdom in 1707, but it w…
Napoleon I (1769–1821), general and emperor of France (1804–14). Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Corsica, went to military schools in France, and became a lieutenant in the artillery (1785). He associated with Jacobins on the outbreak of the French Revolution, drove the British from Toulon (1793), and dispersed a royalist rebellion in Paris (Oct. 1795). He defeated the Austro-Sardinia…
Napoleon II (1811–32), son of Napoleon I and Marie Louise, proclaimed king of Rome at birth.
Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte; 1808–73), emperor of the French (1852–70); son of Louis Bonaparte (king of Holland), nephew of Napoleon I.
Napoleonic Code See: Code Napoléon.
Napoleonic Wars (1803–15), fought by France after Napoleon I became emperor. After the Treaty of Amiens (1802), which had ended the French Revolutionary Wars (1792–1802), Britain declared war on France (1803), maintaining that Napoleon was not keeping the treaty. Napoleon planned to invade Britain, but the British fleet proved too strong for him, especially after the Battle of Trafal…
Narayan, R(asipuram) K(rishnaswamy) (1906– ), Indian novelist writing in English who created the fictitious town of Malgudi in a series of novels that dealt with the ironies of daily life in contemporary India.
Narcissus, fragrant yellow, white, or pink perennial flower (genus Narcissus) of the amaryllis family, named after the youth Narcissus of Greek mythology.
Narcissus, in Greek mythology, name of a self-centered, handsome youth loved by many, including the nymph Echo.
Narcolepsy, chronic disease marked by uncontrollable attacks of deep sleep of brief duration.
Narcotic, drug that induces sleep; specifically, the analgesics (painkilling drugs) opium, codeine, morphine, and heroin.
Nard See: Spikenard.
Narraganset, Native American tribe of the Algonquian linguistic family who inhabited most of Rhode Island.
Narváez, Pánfilo de (c. 1470–1528), Spanish conquistador.
Narwhal (Monodon monoceros), tusked whale native to the Arctic.
NASA See: National Aeronautics and Space Adminstration.
Nash, Charles William (1864–1948), U.S. automobile manufacturer.
Nash, Ogden (1902–71), U.S. humorous poet.
Nashua (pop. 180,557), city in southern New Hampshire, seat of Hillsborough County, situated on the Merrimack and Nashua rivers.
Nashville (pop. 510,000), capital city of Tennessee, on the Cumberland River.
Naskapi, Native American tribe living in Quebec and Labrador, Canada.
Nassau (pop. 132,000), capital city of the Bahama Islands, a port on the northeastern New Providence Island.
Nasser, Gamal Abdel (1918–70), Egyptian president (1956–70) and Arab leader.
Nast, Thomas (1840–1902), German-born U.S. cartoonist, creator of the symbols for the Democratic Party (donkey) and the Republican Party (elephant).
Nasturtium, annual plant (Tropaeolum majus and T. minus) native to mountainous areas of the American tropics and cultivated in gardens for its red, orange, and yellow flowers.
Natal, former province of South Africa, on the Indian Ocean.
Natchez, Muskogean-speaking Native American tribe of southwestern Mississippi.
Natchez (pop. 22,209), city of southwestern Mississippi, seat of Adams County, on the bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River.
Nation, Carry Amelia Moore (1846–1911), U.S. temperance agitator.
Nation of Islam See: Black Muslims.
National Academy of Sciences, private U.S. organization of scientists and engineers, founded 1863 by an act of Congress.
National Aeronautics and Space Adminstration (NASA), U.S. government agency responsible for nonmilitary space exploration and related research.
National Air and Space Museum, part of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., devoted to displays and exhibits about the history of air and space travel.
National Alliance of Business, organization whose major goal is to reduce unemployment among the disadvantaged population.
National of American History, bureau of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., that houses more than 17 million artifacts relating to the social, cultural, political, and technological development of the United States.
National anthem, official song of a nation, played on state or ceremonial occasions, intended as an expression of unity and loyalty to the country's ideals.
National Archives, U.S. governmental organization devoted to preserving archival material (documents, records, the presidential libraries, films, and maps) dating back to 1774 for public viewing and reference at the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), U.S. interracial organization, founded in New York City (1909) to oppose racism, segregation, and discrimination.
National Basketball Association (NBA) See: Basketball.
National budget, financial procedure recommended by the U.S.
National Bureau of Economic Research , organization that studies economic growth, taxation, investments, international trade, employment, and money.
National Bureau of Standards (NBS), of the U.S.
National cemetery, any of a system of burial places operated by U.S. government agencies for the deceased of the U.S. armed forces.
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), U.S. advisory body founded in 1906 to establish eligibility and competition rules for intercollegiate athletics.
National Congress of American Indians, U.S. agency devoted to the welfare, benefits, and work opportunities for Native Americans.
National Congress of Parents and Teachers (National PTA), U.S. organization whose major objective is to provide the best possible education for children from elementary grades through high school.
National debt, amount of money owed by a government, borrowed to pay expenses not covered by taxes.
National Defense Education Act (NDEA), educational bill passed by the U.S.
National Educational Association Of the United States , NEA), largest U.S. professional organization of educators.
National Farmers Organization (NFO), group representing U.S. farmers in seeking the best prices and contracts for farm products and livestock.
National Football League (NFL) See: Football.
National forest, 186 million acres (75 million hectares) preserved and protected by the U.S. government for controlled use and enjoyment by the public, by ranchers for livestock grazing, and by businesses who harvest wood to make products and perform limiting mining operations.
National Gallery of Art, U.S. museum of nationally owned works of art, opened 1941 in Washington, D.C. as a branch of the Smithsonian Institution.
National Geographic Society, nonprofit scientific and educational organization, established in Washington, D.C. (1888) “for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge.” It publishes National Geographic magazine, books, maps, and school bulletins, and sponsors expedition and research projects.
National Guard, volunteer reserve groups of the U.S.
National Hockey League (NHL) See: Hockey.
National income, total of labor and property earnings from the current production of goods and services by the nation's economy.
National Industrial Recovery Act See: National Recovery Administration.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , NIOSH), U.S. organization responsible for evaluating all facets of work conditions for employees' benefits.
National Institute of Standards and Technology , U.S. organization that seeks to preserve a basic system of measurement for the physical sciences, manufacturing enterprises, and general business.
National Institutes of Health (NIH), research agency of the U.S.
National Labor Relations Act, or Wagner Act, law enacted in 1935 permitting the establishment of unions to protect employees' rights, and requiring employers to participate in collective bargaining with elected union representatives.
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), independent U.S. government agency designed to prevent or correct unfair labor practices.
National laboratory, any of 9 U.S. government laboratories devoted to studying a scientific problem such as conservation, energy, nuclear medicine and power, and radiation.
National League See: Baseball.
National League of Cities, agency representing about 15,000 U.S. cities and responsible for improving city life, solidifying power in city government, and occasionally representing cities in federal courts.
National Library of Medicine, located in Bethesda, Md., the central source of medical data in the U.S.
National Mediation Board, independent U.S. federal agency that mediates and arbitrates in labor disputes threatening to disrupt interstate airline and railroad commerce.
National Motto, United States, “In God We Trust.” This phrase, printed on coins since 1864, probably came from the fourth stanza of “The Star-Spangled Banner”: “And this be our motto: ‘In God is our trust.'” Congress made it the official U.S. motto in 1956.
National Museum of African Art, museum of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., and the only U.S. museum devoted exclusively to African art.
National Museum of American Art, collection of more than 32,000 art works by U.S. artists from the mid-18th century to the present, part of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
National Museum of Natural History, collection relating to the earth, its inhabitants, and outer space, part of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
National Naval Medical Center, largest U.S.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. government agency set up in 1970 to coordinate scientific research into atmosphere and oceans, focusing on pollution, resources, and weather control.
National Optical Astronomy Observatories, (NOAO), group of 3 U.S. research centers for optical astronomy, established in 1984 and operating under the National Science Foundation, a federal agency.
National Organization for Women (NOW), organization founded by Betty Friedan (author of The Feminine Mystique, 1963) in 1966 to promote full equality between men and women in all walks of life.
National Park Service, bureau of the U.S.
National Park System, system instituted by President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, whereby land of outstanding scenic or historical interest is protected “for the benefit and enjoyment of the people.” An Act of Congress in 1872 had already created Yellowstone National Park.
National Primitive Baptist Convention in the U.S.A., rganization comprising more than 2,000 black Baptist churches.
National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), U.S. observatory for radio astronomy that operates radio telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory, near Tucson, Ariz.; in Green Bank, W.
National Railroad Passenger Corporation See: Amtrak.
National Recovery Administration (NRA), government agency (1933–36) set up by the National Industrial Recovery Act to administer codes of fair practice for businesses and industries.
National recreation area See: National Park System.
National Republican Party, 19th-century U.S. political party formed when the Democratic-Republican Party split up in the 1828 presidential election.
National Rifle Association of America (NRA), U.S. organization promoting civilian use of firearms, founded 1871.
National Road, U.S. paved road used by settlers emigrating to the West, begun in 1815 and completed in 1833.
National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. federal agency, established 1950.
National Security Agency/Central Security Agency, NSA/CSA), unit of the U.S.
National Security Council (NSC), U.S. defense council created by Congress in 1947 as part of the executive office of the president, to advise on matters relating to national security and defense policies.
National Wildlife Refuge System, areas designated by the U.S. government to conserve wildlife and its habitat.
National Zoological Park, zoo maintained by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
Nationalism, political and social attitude of people who share a common culture, language, and territory as well as common aims, and thus feel a deep-seated loyalty to their group.
Nationalist China See: Taiwan.
Nationality, in law, recognized citizenship of a particular country.
Nationalization, governmental control and ownership of an industry.
The major Native American groups in Central and northern South America at the beginning of the European conquest (16th century) included the Caribs, Arawaks, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas. The Maya civilization had reached its zenith some 700 years before, but the Inca and Aztec were at their peak. The cultures were overthrown and millions were killed by warfare and disease during the 16th-century Span…
Native bear See: Koala.
NATO See: North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
Natural Bridges National Monument, group of 3 natural sandstone bridges in southeastern Utah.
Natural gas See: Gas.
Natural gas liquids (NGL), chemical compounds in liquid form obtained from natural gas.
Natural law, body of law supposed to be innate, discoverable by natural human reason, and common to all people.
Natural resources, earth's products or features that support life or are used to make food, fuel, and raw materials.
Natural selection, mechanism central to Charles Darwin's theory of evolution (1830s).
Naturalism, aesthetic movement attempting to apply the scientific view of the natural world (particularly that of Darwin) to the arts.
Naturalization, process whereby a resident alien obtains citizenship of a country.
Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru, independent island republic in the western Pacific Ocean.
Nausea, feeling of discomfort in the stomach, with a distaste for food and a tendency to vomit.
Nautilus, or chambered nautilus, genus of shellfish native to the South Pacific and Indian oceans, having a spiral shell divided into chambers.
Nautilus, U.S.S., first nuclear-powered submarine, launched Jan. 1955.
Navajo, Native American tribe, thought to have migrated from the north to settle in Arizona and New Mexico c.A.D. 1000.
Naval Academy, United States See: United States Naval Academy.
Naval Observatory, United States, astronomical observatory and source of official standard time in the United States.
Navarre, Basque province in northern Spain.
Navel See: Umbilical cord.
Navigation, science of finding the position and directing a marine, air, or space vessel from one place to another.
Navigation acts, laws regulating navigation at sea or in port or restricting commercial shipping in the national interest—more specifically, regulations promulgated (from 1650) by the British during the American colonial period to try to ensure that benefits of commerce would accrue to England (and to a lesser extent, the colonies) rather than to England's enemies.
Navratilova, Martina (1956–.), Czechoslovakian-born U.S. tennis player.
Navy, seaborne armed force maintained for national defense or attack.
Navy, Department of the, division comprising the U.S.
Navy, United States, branch of the U.S. armed forces designed to maintain command of the sea.
Nazareth (pop. 45,600), historic town in northern Israel, lower Galilee, where Jesus lived as a youth.
Nazism, or National Socialism, the creed of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi Party) led by Adolf Hitler from 1921 to 1945. The Nazi movement began (1918–19) when Germany was humiliated and impoverished by defeat in World War I and by the severe terms of the Treaty of Versailles. From a membership of around 100,000 in 1928, the party increased in strength to 920,000 …
NCAA See: National Collegiate Athletic Association.
NEA See: National Educational Association Of the United States.
Nearsightedness See: Myopia.
Nebraska, state in central United States in the Great Plains region; bordered by South Dakota to the north, the Missouri River and Iowa and Missouri to the east, Kansas to the south, Colorado to the south and west, and Wyoming to the west. Nebraska, which slopes gradually from northwest to southeast, has 2 main land regions. The eastern fifth of the state lies in the Dissected Till Plains. Once co…
Nebuchadnezzar, name of three kings of Babylonia.
Nebula, enormous interstellar cloud of gas and dust, often luminous.