Nebuchadnezzar, name of three kings of Babylonia. Nebuchadnezzar I (ruled 1124–1103 B.C.) conquered Elam and extended Babylonian rule over most of ancient Mesopotamia. Nebuchadnezzar II (605–562 B.C.) waged military campaigns to consolidate the Neo-Babylonian or Chaldean Empire, crushing the kingdom of Judah, destroying Jerusalem (586 B.C.), and taking captive Jews to Babylon. His conquest of the Jews is described in the Old Testament book of Daniel. Nebuchadnezzar III (6th century B.C.) usurped the throne from Darius I for 10 weeks before he was killed.
See also: Babylon.