Clyde, most important river of Scotland and one of Britain's major commercial waterways.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Clyde to Constable, John
Clymer, George (1739–1813), American revolutionary patriot and statesman.
Clytemnestra, in Greek mythology, daughter of Leda and Tyndareus, twin sister of Helen of Troy, wife of Agamemnon, and mother of 3 daughters and a son, Orestes.
Cnut See: Canute.
Coagulant, any substance that causes or stimulates a liquid to change to a thickened curdlike or solidified state.
Coahuila, state in northern Mexico.
Coal, hard, black mineral, predominantly carbon, the compressed remains of tropical and subtropical plants, especially those of the carboniferous and Permian geological periods, burned as a fuel. With its by-products coke and coal tar, it is vital to many modern industries. Coal formation began when plant debris accumulated in swamps, partially decomposing and forming peat layers. A rise in sea le…
Coal oil See: Kerosene.
Coal tar, heavy, black, viscous liquid liberated during the distillation of coal, the source of a number of valuable chemicals.
Coalition, combination or alliance of political groups having mutual interests.
Coanda, Henri Marie (1885–1972), Romanian-born French aeronautics engineer and inventor, who designed an aircraft based on the jet-propulsion system.
Coast Guard Academy, United States See: United States Coast Guard Academy.
Coast Guard, U.S., branch of the armed services supervised in peacetime by the Department of Transportation, in war by the navy.
Coast Ranges, string of mountain ranges along the Pacific coast of North America, running from Kodiak Island in Alaska to southern California.
Coati (Nasua nasua), small, carnivorous mammal related to the raccoon.
Coatsworth, Elizabeth (1893–1986), U.S. author best known for her children's books.
Coaxial cable, cable consisting of 2 conductors, one within the other, separated by an insulator.
Cobalt, chemical element, symbol Co; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Cobb, Ty(rus Raymond) (1886–1961), U.S. baseball player.
Cobbett, William (1763–1835), British radical writer and reformer, best known for his book Rural Rides (1830), which portrayed the misery of rural workers.
Cobden, Richard (1804–65), British politician and reformer, leader of the Manchester School.
Cobra, venomous snake (family Elapidae) that rears up and spreads the ribs of the neck to form a “hood” when alarmed.
Coca (Erythroxylon coca), shrub whose leaves contain various alkaloids.
Cocaine, colorless or white crystalline alkaloid, member of a broad group of plant substances that includes nicotine, caffeine, and morphine. In nature, cocaine is found in significant quantities in the leaves of 2 species of the coca shrub that grow throughout the eastern highlands of the Andes in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia and along the Caribbean coast of South America. In medicine it is used as…
Cochise (1815–74), chief of the Chiricahua Apache tribe.
Cochran, Jacqueline (1912–80), U.S. pilot.
Cock-of-the-rock, bird of genus Rupicola, of the cotingas family, native to South American forests.
Cockatiel, gray bird (Nymphicus hollandicus) found in Australia.
Cockatoo, parrot with erectile crest (especially, genus Kakatoe).
Cockcroft, Sir John Douglas (1897–1967), English physicist who first “split the atom.” With E.T.S.
Cocker spaniel, popular breed of dog in the United States, bred from the English spaniel.
Cockle, bivalve mollusk (order Eulamel libranchia) with cupped shell ornamented with radiating grooves.
Cocklebur, any of several weeds (genus Xanthium) of the composite family.
Cockroach, or roach, flat-bodied insect of the family Blattidae with long antennae and hardened forewings that protect the hindwings, as in the beetle.
Cockscomb, tropical Asiatic flower (Celosia argented) of the amaranth family.
Coconut palm (Cocos nuerferd), tropical tree. Its origin is obscure because coconuts can survive prolonged immersion in the sea, and they have been spread around the world by ocean currents. The height of the coconut palm ranges from 60 to 100 ft (18 to 30 m). The trunk, which often tilts over, bears a cluster of long fronds at the top. A single palm can produce over 400 nuts in the course of a ye…
Cocoon, protective covering enclosing the larvae or pupae of insects.
Cocteau, Jean (1889–1963), French author, artist, and film director.
Cod, bottom-feeding fish (family Gadidae) of the northern Atlantic and the Pacific.
Cod-liver oil, pale yellow substance obtained from the liver of cod and related fish.
Code, set of laws or rules arranged systematically and put in writing.
Code Civil See: Code Napoleon.
Code Napoléon, French legal code, officially the Code Civil.
Codeine, mild but addictive narcotic alkaloid, analgesic, and cough suppressant derived from opium.
Codes and ciphers, set of characters or signals, with prearranged meanings as letters or numbers, used for secrecy and brevity in transmitting messages, especially in wartime.
Codling moth, or codlin moth, small, nocturnal moth (Laspeyresia pomonella) whose caterpillars live in apples and pears.
Cody, John Patrick Cardinal (1907–82), archbishop of Chicago 1965–82.
Cody, William Frederick See: Buffalo Bill.
Coeducation, education of both sexes in the same schools and classes.
Coelacanth, lunged, bony fish of the family Coelacanthidae.
Coelenterate, phylum of primitive, invertebrate animals, now renamed the Cnidaria (the C is silent).
Coelom, major body cavity in vertebrates and higher invertebrates.
Coercive Acts See: Intolerable Acts.
Coffee, evergreen shrub or tree (genus Coffea) from whose seeds the drink of the same name is made.
Coffee house, variety of commercial establishment that arose in London in the mid-17th century.
Cohan, George M(ichael) (1878–1942), U.S. songwriter, actor, composer and producer of popular, patriotic musicals.
Cohesion, attractive force holding the atoms or molecules of a single substance together.
Cohn, Ferdinand Julius (1828–98), German botanist, one of the founders of bacteriology.
Coin, piece of stamped metal, of a fixed value and weight, issued to serve as money. Until banknotes came into use, coins were the only form of money. The principal metals used in coinage are gold, silver, and copper. They were originally used in their pure state, but were later alloyed (combined) with other substances to make the coins cheaper and more resistant to wear. Coins have presented a co…
Coin collecting, or numismatics, popular hobby throughout the world.
Coke, form of amorphous carbon that is left when bituminous coal is burned in special furnaces to remove volatile constituents.
Coke oven gas, hydrogen and methane mixture produced when coal is heated to about 2000°F (1100°C) in an airtight chamber.
Colón (pop. 137,800), third largest city of Panama, established in 1850 at what is now the Atlantic terminus of the Panama Canal.
Colbert, Jean Baptiste (1619–83), French diplomat and finance superintendent.
Colchicum, poisonous flowering plant (Colchicum autumnale) of the lily family, also known as autumn crocus or meadow saffron.
Cold-blooded animal, or poikilotherm, animal that cannot maintain a constant internal body temperature and therefore attains a temperature close to that of its environment, making it dangerously subject to climatic changes.
Cold, common, viral infection of the mucous membrane of the nose and throat, marked by discharge of mucus, sneezing, and watering of the eyes.
Cold sore, skin lesion, generally of the lips or nose, caused by the Herpes simplex virus.
Cold War, expression used to characterize the conflict after World War II between the Western powers led by the United States and the Communist bloc led by the USSR.
Cole, Thomas (1801–48), English-born U.S. landscape painter.
Coleman, William Thaddeus, Jr. (1920– ), U.S. secretary of transportation 1975–77, the second African-American cabinet member in U.S. history.
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor (1772–1834), English poet, philosopher, and critic.
Colette (Sidonie Gabrielle Colette; 1873–1954), French author noted primarily for her sensual style and her themes of women, love and jealousy.
Coleus, tropical plant (genus Coleus) of the mint family.
Colfax, Schuyler (1823–85), vice president of the United States during the first term of President Ulysses S.
Colic, acute pain focused in an internal organ, frequently the colon or other component of the digestive tract.
Coliseum See: Colosseum.
Colitis, disease characterized by inflammation of the colon (large intestine).
Collage, 20th-century art form in which various objects and materials are glued onto a canvas or board, sometimes covered with paint.
Collagen, major component of connective tissue, constituting 70% of its dry weight.
Collarbone, or clavicle, horizontal bone that connects with the breastbone (sternum) and the shoulder blade (scapula) to support the shoulder and to hold the arm in proper position.
Collard (Brassica oreracea), headless cabbage of the mustard family commonly grown in the southern United States.
Collective bargaining See: Labor movement; National Labor Relations Act.
Collective behavior, sociological term for human behavior in crowds and other large, unorganized, temporary groups.
Collective farm, agricultural enterprise operated cooperatively.
Collectivism, political doctrine that places control of economic activity in the hands of the community or the government, as opposed to individuals, as in the case under capitalism.
College entrance examination, series of tests administered in the United States by 2 agencies, the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) and the American College Testing Program (ACT), to determine eligibility for college or university admission.
Collie, 2 types of sheepdog, rough-coated and smooth-coated, originating in Scotland in the 1600s and brought to the United States by British colonists a century later.
Collins, Michael (1930– ), U.S. astronaut.
Collins, (William) Wilkie (1824–89), English novelist, often considered the originator of the detective novel in English.
Collodi, Carlo (Carlo Lorenzini; 1826–90), Italian journalist and author of humorous adult fiction and moral children's stories, of which the best known is The Adventures of Pinocchio (1883).
Colloid, mixture in which particles of one substance are dispersed in another.
Colobus, or guerza, genus of thumbless, long-tailed, African monkey of the family Cercopithecidae.
Cologne (pop. 916,200), river port and industrial city in western Germany, on the Rhine River.
Colombia (Republic of), fourth largest country in South America. It extends over 440,831 sq mi (1,141,748 sq km) of the extreme northwest of South America, bounded on the northwest by Panama, on the northeast by Venezuela, on the southeast by Brazil, and on the south by Peru and Ecuador. It is the only South American country that has both an Atlantic and a Pacific coastline. Nearly half of the cou…
Colombo (pop. 615,000), capital, chief port, and largest city of Sri Lanka (Ceylon), located on the southwest coast of the island, in the Indian Ocean.
Colombo Plan, cooperative program for economic development in South and Southeast Asia, inaugurated in 1951 at Colombo, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).
Colon, large intestine from the cecum (the pouch into which the small intestine empties) to the rectum, about 60 in (1.5 m) long.
Colonial period, American, nearly 170 formative years of settlement and adventure before U.S. independence. The first colonies were established by chartered trading companies, groups of commercial speculators who shared the profits of the colony in return for putting up the capital necessary for its establishment. The first permanent English settlement in America, at Jamestown (1607), was the proj…
Colonialism, political and economic subordination of an area by a geographically removed parent country.
Colony, area and people controlled by a foreign power.
Color, visual effect caused by the eye's ability to react differently to different wavelengths of light.
Color blindness, inability to tell certain colors apart.
Colorado, state in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States; bordered by Wyoming in the north, Nebraska in the north and east, Kansas in the east, Oklahoma and New Mexico in the south, and Utah in the west. Colorado has the highest mean elevation (c. 6,800 ft/2,100 m) of any state. The high plains of the east, part of the Great Plains, cover two-fifths of the state. The land here is extremel…
Colorado Desert, arid basin of Southeast California and northwest Mexico, 2,000 sq mi (5,180 sq km).
Colorado River, major U.S. river, rising in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and flowing 1,450 mi (2,333 km) in a generally southwesternly direction to enter the Gulf of California.
Colorado Springs (pop. 215,200), city in central Colorado, second-largest in the state and seat of El Paso County.
Colosseum, or Coliseum, oval amphitheater in Rome, built c.75–80 A.D., with seats for about 45,000 spectators on 4 tiers.
Colossians, Epistle to the, book of the New Testament written by St.
Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, statue of Helios, the sun god, erected c.290–280 B.C. by the sculptor Chares of Lindos in the harbor of Rhodes.
Colt, Samuel (1814–62), U.S. inventor and industrialist who devised the revolver, a single-barreled pistol with a revolving multiple bullet chamber, in the early 1830s.
Colter, John (1775–1813), U.S. trapper and guide, best known for his explorations of what is now Yellowstone National Park.
Coltrane, John (1926–67), U.S. musician and composer.
Coltsfoot, (Tussilago farfara), wild plant of the daisy family Compositae native to Europe and Asia.
Colum, Padraic (1881–1972), Irish poet and dramatist associated with the Celtic renaissance and the Irish National Theater; cofounder of the Irish Review (1911) and writer of several plays for Dublin's Abbey Theater including The Fiddler's House (1907) and Thomas Μ uskerry (1910).
Columbia (pop. 95,802), city in central Missouri, seat of Boone County.
Columbia (pop. 99,300), capital and largest city of South Carolina; seat of Richland County.
Columbia River, large river arising in the Canadian Rockies in southeast British Columbia, and flowing south into the northwest United States, where it turns west and forms the border between Oregon and Washington and empties into the Pacific Ocean.
Columbia University, one of the major private U.S. universities.
Columbine, plant (genus Aquilegia) related to the buttercup, with tall, slender stems, lobed leaves, and intricate flowers.
Columbite, dense oxide mineral composed of manganese, niobium, and iron, general chemical formula (Fe,Mn)Nb2O6.
Columbium See: Niobium.
Columbus (pop. 644,000), capital and second-largest city of Ohio, seat of Franklin County.
Columbus (pop. 243,072), second-largest city in Georgia, seat of Muscogee County.
Columbus, Christopher (Cristoforo Colombo; 1451–1506), commonly credited as the discoverer of America. Born in Genoa, Italy, he was the son of a wool weaver. An experienced sailor and student of navigation, Columbus was convinced that he could pioneer a new route to the treasures of the Far East by sailing West across the Atlantic. In 1484 he tried to win financial support for his plans fro…
Column, in architecture, vertical structural support, usually cylindrical, consisting of a base, shaft, and capital.
Coma, state of unconsciousness from which a person cannot be roused by sensory stimulation.
Comanche, native North Americans of the Southwest, closely related to the Shoshone.
Combine harvester, farm machine that cuts, threshes, and cleans grain.
Combustion, rapid oxidation (or burning) of fuel in which heat and usually light are produced.
Comedy, literary work that aims primarily to amuse, often through ridicule, exaggeration, or satire of human nature and institutions, usually ending happily.
Comenius, John Amos (Jan Amos Komensk; 1592–1670), Czech educational reformer and Protestant theologian, last bishop of the old Moravian church (from 1632).
Comet, astronomical body consisting of a small mass, mostly gas and dust, spread over a large volume, orbiting the sun in a highly elliptical path that may take it as much as 150,000 times as far from the sun as the earth is. The head of a comet is bright, probably composed of ice and frozen gases. As it nears the sun, particles and gases are cast off into a tail that may be as long as 100 million…
Comics, also known as comic strips, series of drawings, usually accompanied by captions or dialogue, telling a continuous story.
Cominform (Communist Information Bureau), international organization set up in 1947 to coordinate among Communist parties in the Soviet Union, eastern Europe, and some capitalist countries.
Comintern (Communist International), organization founded by the Russian Communist Party and composed of national Communist parties from all parts of the world.
Comitia, in ancient Rome, assemblies of people summoned in groups to vote on proposals presented by magistrates.
Commager, Henry Steele (1902– ), U.S. historianand educator, who taught American history at New York University, Columbia University, and Amherst College.
Commando, military unit trained for swift, guerrilla-like raids into enemy territory.
Commedia dell'arte, form of Italian comedy that flourished in the 16th–18th centuries.
Commercial art, general term for any of the visual arts used in business, especially advertising, such as designing, drawing, and lettering for illustrations and advertisements, design and preparation of posters, billboards, display cards, packages, etc.
Commercial paper, generic term for various business documents involving the payment of money.
Commission, military, written order and oath of service granting an individual the rank and authority of an officer in the armed services.
Committee for State Security See: KGB.
Committee of the whole, committee including the entire membership of an organization.
Committees of correspondence, locally organized groups that formed a communication and information network in the 13 American colonies before and during the Revolutionary War.
Committees of safety, organizations set up at the urging of the Second Continental Congress to aid in the American transition to self-rule.
Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), government-owned corporation within the U.S.
Commodity exchange, formal market in which participants buy and sell contracts providing for the delivery of certain products at future dates.
Common carrier, person or company that transports people, goods, or messages for the public at large.
Common Cause, national citizens' lobby, organized in 1970 by John W.
Common law, body of laws based on court decisions and customs. It is usually contrasted to statute law, which is made by legislatures. Common law grew out of English custom and became established mainly by the adherence of judges to precedents, or previous decisions—a principle known as stare decisis (stand on things as decided). The decisions of earlier judges became the law of later ones.…
Common Market, European, officially the European Economic Community (EEC), an economic union of West European nations. After World War II, West European nations sought new forms of cooperation in order to revive their damaged economies. The first step was the foundation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), set up in 1952 by the six future members of the EEC. The Treaty of Rome, creatin…
Commoner, Barry (1917– ), U.S. biologist, ecologist, and environmentalist who warned against the environmental threats of technology and nuclear energy in such books as The Closing Circle (1971), The Poverty of Power (1976), and The Politics of Energy (1979).A democratic socialist, he has spoken out against the concentration of corporate power in the United States and in 1980 ran for the U.S. presidency as the candidate of the Citizens' party.
Commons, House of See: House of Commons.
Commonwealth, from the phrase “common wealth” (public good), form of government based on the power and consent of the people.
Commonwealth Games, sports competition among amateur athletes from British Commonwealth countries, first held in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1930 under the name of British Empire Games.
Commonwealth of Nations, association of Britain and over 40 former colonies, now independent states, and their dependencies.
Communal society, cooperative group formed on the basis of shared interests (e.g., religious or political) and emphasizing the needs of the community above those of the individual.
Commune, term for small, locally governed territorial districts in France and some other countries.
Communication, flow of information from one point (the source) to another (the receiver).
Communications satellite, artificial earth-orbiting object used to relay radio signals between points on earth.
Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT), private corporation established by act of Congress in 1962, to develop satellite systems for relaying telephone, telegraph, and television transmissions.
Communion, in Christian churches, name for the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.
Communism, ideal economic order in which property and the means of production are held in common in a classless society. Elements of communism are as old as the Golden Age described by Greek poets and philosophers as a time long ago when people shared all things equally and lived simply. Primitive forms of communism are also discernible in the communities of early Christians and in the teachings a…
Communist Manifesto See: Communism; Marx, Karl.
Communist Party See: Communism.
Community, term used in the social sciences to designate a group of people within a larger society sharing similar customs, interests, characteristics or beliefs.
Community property, legal system of property ownership by husband and wife existing in several states in the United States.
Comoros, island-state in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of Africa, between Mozambique and Madagascar.
Compact disc (CD), small plastic disc used for storage of recorded sound or other data.
Comparative psychology, branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal (including human) behavior at different stages of development to discern similarities and differences in species.
Compass, instrument used to indicate direction.
Compass plant, or pilotweed, prairie plant (Silphium laciniatum) of the family Compositae.
Competency-based education, teaching programs requiring students to attain specified levels of achievement in designated courses or skills.
Compositae, largest family of flowering plants, including more than 20,000 species.
Compound, in chemistry, any substance composed of atoms of more than one element chemically bonded to form a fixed structure with distinctive properties.
Compound eye, organ of vision consisting of many tiny, closely packed lenses.
Compromise of 1850, attempt by the U.S.
Compton, Arthur Holly (1892–1962), U.S. physicist, Nobel Prize winner for physics (1927), for his discovery of the Compton effect (x-rays increase in wavelengths when they collide with electrons).
Compton-Burnett, Ivy (1892–1969), English novelist.
Computer, automatic device capable of carrying out calculations according to a predetermined set of instructions. First developed in the 1940s, their technological development has been rapid. Computers have taken over routine commercial calculations and are used in scientific research and technology design. Computers are usually classified according to their mode of operation: analog, digital, or …
Computer graphics, use of a computer for drawing lines, graphs, designs, and pictures.
Computerized axial tomography See: CAT.
COMSAT See: Communications Satellite Corporation.
Comstock Law, U.S. legislation, passed in 1873 and named for anti-vice crusader Anthony Comstock.
Comstock Lode, enormously rich vein of gold and silver discovered near what became Virginia City in Nevada during the late 1850s.
Comte, Auguste (1798–1857), French philosopher and sociologist.
Conakry (pop. 705,300), capital and largest city of Guinea in West Africa.
Conant, James Bryant (1893–1978), U.S. educator.
Concentration camp, prison for the detention of political or military suspects, frequently found in totalitarian countries and sometimes in democratic nations during time of war. Concentration camps differ sharply from other prisons in the absence of regular judicial proceedings and the fact that prisoners may be held indefinitely. Camps have often served to confine large segments of the populatio…
Concerto, musical composition in which unequal musical forces play in opposition to each other, usually 1 solo instrument against a large orchestra.
Conch, name once applied to all mollusks—hence the term “conchology”—but now restricted to certain marine gastropod mollusks with large spiral shells.
Concord (pop. 17,076), town in eastern Massachusetts situated on the Concord River 20 mi (32 km) northwest of Boston.
Concord (pop. 36,006), capital of and third largest city in New Hampshire; seat of Merrimack County.
Concord, Battle of, second engagement in the American Revolutionary War after the Battle of Lexington.
Concordat, treaty concluded between the pope and the secular government of a state to regulate religious affairs within the state and deal with such questions as the appointment of bishops and the status of church property.
Concrete, versatile structural building material made by mixing broken stone or gravel with sand, cement, and water.
Concussion, temporary malfunction of brain activity, often including unconsciousness, due to a blow to the head causing the brain to jolt against the inner skull, injuring the brain's outer surface.
Condé, Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de (1621–86), also called the Great Condé, an outstanding French general of the Thirty Years' War, related to the Bourbon royal family.
Condensation, in physics, change of a substance from the gaseous (vapor) to the liquid state.
Condensed-matter physics See: Solid-state physics.
Condominium, in real estate, individual ownership in property, such as an apartment, that is part of a larger complex owned in common.
Condor, one of two species of vultures and the largest flying birds in existence.
Condorcet, Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de (17430–94), French mathematician and philosopher.
Cone, three-dimensional geometric figure whose base is a closed curve, such as a circle or an ellipse, and whose dimensional sides meet at a single point called the vertex.
Conestoga wagon, large covered wagon used by North American pioneers.
Confederate States of America, government formed by the Southern states that seceded from the United States of America between Dec. 1860 and May 1861. South Carolina was the first, followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana by the end of Jan. Texas joined them in Feb. and was followed in the spring by Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Rebels from Missouri an…
Confederation of Canada, union of British colonies established by the British Parliament in the British North America Act of 1867.
Confession, in Christianity, admission of sin, an aspect of repentance.
Confirmation, rite of certain Christian churches, usually administered in adolescence.
Conflict of interest, situation in which an employee, part owner, officer or director of an organization has a financial or other interest in another organization that could cause him or her to favor one at the expense of the other.
Confucianism, philosophy based on the thinking of Confucius, the great Chinese philosopher and moralist. Confucianism teaches a moral and social philosophy and code of behavior based on certain abstract qualities and strengths, such as love, peace, harmony, order, humanity, wisdom, courage, and fidelity, without appealing to any ultimate higher authority or God. Heaven is the highest state one can…
Confucius (551–479 B.C.), Chinese philosopher and sage, founder of Confucianism, the great moral and religious system of China.
Congenital defect See: Birth defect.
Conglomerate, corporation that has expanded into the production and sale of products quite different from those with which it was initially involved.
Congo, Republic of the Congo, formerly part of French Equatorial Africa. It lies on the equator, with Gabon and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and Zaire to the east. A low, treeless plain extends from the coast inland for about 40 mi (64 km). The land then rises to the mountainous area of the Mayombé Escarpment, with its series of sharp ridges, a region of dense tropical rain forest. To the…
Congo (Kinshasa) See: Zaire.
Congo River, or Zaire River, second-longest river in Africa.
Congregational Church, Protestant church that holds that each local congregation should have complete autonomy, though congregations may form loose associations.
Congress of the Confederation, political body that operated the government of the United States from Mar. 1781 to Mar. 1789.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), association of industrial unions.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), U.S. interracial organization founded in 1942 by James Farmer to promote African American civil rights and liberties through nonviolent direct action projects.
Congress of the United States, legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. Congress consists of 2 houses: the Senate, composed of 2 members from each state, and the House of Representatives, in which seats are appointed to the states on the basis of population. House membership, which was 65 in 1789, has grown with the nation's population but is now permanently fixed at 435. Membersh…
Congressional Budget Office (CBO), agency of the U.S.
Congressional Record, printed daily account of the proceedings in the U.S.
Congreve, William (1670–1729), English Restoration dramatist, known for his comedies of manners.
Conifer, any cone-bearing tree or shrub.
Conjunctivitis, inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye (the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids); also called pinkeye.
Connally, John Bowden (1917– ), U.S. secretary of the Navy (1961–63), governor of Texas (1963–69), U.S. secretary of the treasury (1971–72).
Connaught and Strathearn, Duke of (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1850–1942), governor general of Canada (1911–16), son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Great Britain.
Connecticut, state in the New England region of the United States; bordered by Massachusetts in the north, Rhode Island in the east, Long Island Sound in the south, and New York in the west. The state is divided by the Connecticut River Valley into the western and eastern New England Uplands. The Taconic Mountains in the extreme northwest include Mt. Frissell. From these peaks the land slopes thro…
Connecticut River, longest river in New England.
Connective tissue, basic tissue that constitutes the connective and supporting element of the body.
Connelly, Marc(us Cook) (1890–1980), U.S. playwright, best known for his Pulitzer Prize-winning play The Green Pastures (1930).
Connors, Jimmy (1952– ), U.S. tennis player.
Conquistadors, 16th-century military adventurers who founded Spain's empire in the Americas.
Conrad, Charles, Jr. (1930–), U.S. astronaut.
Conrad, Joseph (1857–1924), English novelist of Polish birth.
Conrail, official nickname for Consolidated Rail Corp., a quasi-governmental U.S. organization created to take over 7 bankrupt railroads in the northeastern and northwestern regions, including the Penn Central, Erie & Lackawanna, Lehigh Valley, and Reading.
Conscientious objector, person opposed to war in any form or in the specific form it is then taking, who by reason of conscience and conviction refuses to bear arms in wartime.
Conscription See: Draft, military.
Conservation, management and protection of the earth's natural resources to assure adequate supplies for future generations.
Conservatism, term for social and political philosophies or attitudes that stress traditional values and continuity of social institutions and that reject sudden radical change, while maintaining ideals of progress.
Conservative Party, one of the two major political parties in Great Britain.
Considérant, Victor Prosper (1808–93), French socialist.
Conspiracy, in U.S. law, agreement between two or more people to commit an unlawful act.
Constable, John (1776–1837), English painter.