Gê, group of Native American tribes in east central Brazil.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Gabor, Dennis to Ghetto
Géricault, (Jean Louis André) Théodore (1791–1824), French painter.
Gabor, Dennis (1900–79), Hungarian-born British physicist who invented holography, for which he was awarded the 1971 Nobel Prize for physics.
Gaborone (pop. 111,000), capital of Botswana, an independent state in southern Africa.
Gabriel, archangel in the Bible and the Koran.
Gadhafi, Muammar Muhammad al- See: Quadhafi, Muammar Muhammad al-.
Gadolinium, chemical element, symbol Gd; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Gadsden, family name of two distinguished South Carolinians.
Gadsden Purchase, Mexican territory bought by the United States in 1853, to add to lands acquired in the war of 1848.
Gadwall, grayish-brown duck (Anas strepera), of the family Anatidae.
Gaea, or Ge, Mother Earth personified as a goddess.
Gaelic, group of Celtic languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European languages, native to Ireland (Irish Gaelic), the Isle of Man (Manx), and the Scottish Highlands (Scottish Gaelic).
Gaelic literature, writings in the Gaelic language.
Gaels, or Goidels, Gaelic-speaking Celtic peoples of Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man, as opposed to the Celtic peoples of Wales, Cornwall, or Brittany, who speak Brythonic.
Gag rules, resolutions passed in the U.S.
Gagarin, Yuri Alekseyevich (1934–68), Soviet cosmonaut, first human in space.
Gage, Thomas (1721–87), British general, from 1763 commander-in-chief of British forces in North America and governor of Massachusetts (1774–75).
Gaillardia, any of several species of flowers (genus Gaillardia) of the composite family.
Gainsborough, Thomas (1727–88), English portraitist and landscape painter.
Galago, any of several species of small mammals (genus Galago) of the loris family, native to African forests.
Galahad, Sir, in British medieval legends, one of King Arthur's knights.
Galapagos Islands, or Archipiélago de Colón, group of volcanic islands in the Pacific, on the equator west of Ecuador and belonging to that country.
Galatia, ancient territory of central Asia Minor overrun by Gauls in the 3rd century B.C.
Galatians, Epistle to the, 9th book of the New Testament, a letter written by St.
Galaxy, aggregation of stars, dust, and gas. The earth's galaxy is average sized: It contains approximately 100 billion stars, a beam of light would take approximately 100,000 years to cross from 1 side to the other, and it is shaped like a disk, with arms spiraling out from the bright nucleus. At the edge of the galaxy is the bright band of stars called the Milky Way. The sun, a star, lies…
Galbraith, John Kenneth (1908– ), Canadian-born U.S. economist and author, ambassador to India 1961–63.
Galen (A.D. 129–c.200), Greek physician at the court of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Galicia, historic region in east-central Europe, now part of Poland and Russia's Western Ukraine.
Galilee, in ancient Roman times, hilly region of northern Palestine between the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan River (now part of Israel).
Galilee, Sea of, lake in northern Israel, also called Lake Tiberias.
Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), Italian mathematician and physicist who discovered the laws of falling bodies and the parabolic motion of projectiles. The first to turn the newly invented telescope to the heavens (1609), he was among the earliest observers of sunspots and the phases of Venus. A talented publicist, he helped to popularize the pursuit of science. However, his quarrelsome nature …
Gall (c. 1840–94), Sioux chief who aided Sitting Bull in defeating General Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876).
Gall, abnormal growth on trees caused by parasites such as fungi and insects.
Gall bladder, muscular sac in many vertebrate animals that stores the bile created by the liver. In humans the pear-shaped sac lies in its own depression, or foss, under the liver. It is about 3.5 in (9 cm) long, 1 in (2.5 cm) wide, and holds about 35 cu cm of fluid. Arising from the gall bladder is the cystic duct, which is connected to the liver by the common hepatic duct, and to the first part …
Gallatin, (Abraham Alfonse) Albert (1761–1849), Swiss-born U.S. statesman.
Gallaudet, family name of U.S. educators of the deaf.
Gallegos, Rómulo (1884–1968), Venezuelan novelist and statesman.
Galleon, sailing vessel with 3 or 4 masts and 2 to 4 decks.
Galley, early seagoing warship, propelled by oars, sometimes with auxiliary sails.
Gallfly See: Gall.
Gallic Wars, series of military campaigns (58–51 B.C.) by Julius Caesar.
Gallienus, Publius Licinius Valerianus Egnatius (A.D. 218?–268), Roman emperor (253–268).
Gallinule, any of several species of water birds (genus Gallinula) of the rail family.
Gallipoli Peninsula, 50-mi (80-km) strip of land in European Turkey between the Aegean Sea and the Dardanelles.
Gallium, chemical element, symbol Ga; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Gallstone See: Gall bladder.
Gallup (pop. 18,200), city in New Mexico.
Gallup, George Horace (1901–84), U.S. pollster.
Gallup Poll See: Gallup, George Horace; Public opinion poll.
Galsworthy, John (1867–1933), English novelist and playwright.
Galton, Sir Francis (1822–1911), British scientist, author of Hereditary Genius (1869).
Galvani, Luigi (1737–98), Italian anatomist who discovered “animal electricity” (c. 1786).
Galvanizing, industrial process for coating iron or steel with a thin layer of zinc to prevent rusting. It was discovered in 1742 but only named in 1830 after Luigi Galvani (1737–98), who demonstrated that 2 unlike metals in contact produce an electric current, though he did not know why. There are several stages in galvanizing. The metal is thoroughly cleaned with solvents and acid, and a …
Galvanometer, instrument used for measuring minute electrical currents.
Galveston (pop. 217,399), city in southeastern Texas and seat of Galveston County.
Galway (pop. 47,100), port city and commercial center in western Ireland.
Gama, Vasco Da See: Da Gama, Vasco.
Gambia (officially Republic of The Gambia), independent country in West Africa. Gambia is a narrow strip of land 7–20 mi (11–32 km) wide, stretching inland from the Atlantic Ocean, for about 200 mi (322 km) along the Gambia River. It is surrounded on three sides by Senegal. At the mouth of the Gambia River, on St. Mary's Island, is Banjul, the capital city and port. The Mandin…
Gamblers Anonymous (G.A.), international organization designed to help people with an uncontrollable urge to gamble.
Gambling, betting money or valuables on the outcome of some future event that is more or less unpredictable. Gambling is at least as old as recorded history. Dice games were popular in ancient Rome, and loaded dice found among the ruins of Pompeii indicate that some, at least, were rigged. The Roman historian Tacitus tells of Romans and Germans gambling themselves into social disgrace, financial r…
Game, contest or sport played by rules.
Game theory, branch of mathematics concerned with a mathematical process of selecting an optimum strategy in the face of an opponent's strategy.
Gamete, male or female reproductive cell, whether in animals, humans, or plants.
Gamma globulin, portion of blood protein containing antibodies.
Gamma rays, electromagnetic wave energy similar to, but of much higher energy than, ordinary X rays.
Gamow, George (1904–68), Russian-born U.S. physicist and science writer, best known for his work relating to the evolution of stars and for his support of the “big bang” theory of cosmology.
Ganda, ethnic group living in Uganda, constituting about 30% of the population.
Gander See: Goose.
Gandhi, Indira Priyadarshini (1917–84), first woman prime minister of India.
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (1869–1948), nationalist leader of lndia.
Gandhi, Rajiv (1944–91), prime minister of India (1984–87).
Gang, group of people who come together for social purposes, often criminal.
Gang of Four, group of supporters of China's Mao Tse-tung who, after Mao's death, were tried and convicted for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s.
Ganges River, in India, the most sacred Hindu river, believed to be the reincarnation of the goddess Ganga.
Gangrene, death of tissue following loss of blood supply, often after obstruction of arteries by injury, thrombosis (clot formation on a damaged artery wall), or embolism (blockage by an air bubble, clot, or other debris).
Gannet (Morus bassanus), large, white seabird of the North Atlantic.
Ganymede, in Greek mythology, a young Trojan prince.
Gar, freshwater fish of the family Lepisosteidae with long, thin bodies, long jaws, and an armor of diamond-shaped scales.
Garamond, Claude (1480–1561), French type designer and publisher.
Garand rifle, single-shot, semiautomatic weapon.
Garbage, generally, refuse consisting of organic (animal or vegetable) or other matter.
Garbo, Greta (Greta Lovisa Gustafsson; 1905–90), Swedish-born U.S. film actress.
García Lorca, Federico (1898–1936), Spanish poet and dramatist.
García Márquez, Gabriel (1928- ), Colombian novelist.
Garden of Eden See: Eden, Robert Anthony, Earl of Avon.
Gardenia (genus Gardenia), evergreen flowering shrub native to subtropical Asia and Africa that bears waxy, fragrant white flowers and has dark green, glossy leaves.
Gardening, process of cultivating plants, often as a hobby to beautify homes, sometimes to produce herbs, vegetables, and fruits for consumption.
Gardner, Erle Stanley (1889–1970), U.S. mystery writer, creator of lawyer-detective Perry Mason.
Garfield, James Abram (1831–81), 20th president of the United States. Fatally wounded by an assassin less than four months after his inauguration, Garfield served only 199 days in office. Garfield, grew up on a frontier farm near Orange, Ohio, working as a canal bargeman, farmer, and carpenter. He graduated from Williams College, Mass., and returned to Ohio to teach. A supporter of the newl…
Garfish See: Gar.
Gargoyle, decorative waterspout on a building, used to throw rainwater clear of the walls.
Garibaldi, Giuseppe (1807–82), Italian patriot and general.
Garland, (Hannibal) Hamlin (1860–1940), U.S. writer.
Garland, Judy (Frances Gumm; 1922–69), U.S. singer and movie actress.
Garlic (Allium sativum), perennial plant of the lily family; also, its edible bulb.
Garment Worker's Union, International Ladies, labor union with branches in the United States and Canada, comprising workers who produce women's and children's clothing.
Garner, John Nance (1868–1967), U.S. vice president (1933–41) under Franklin D.
Garnet, group of common silicate minerals, including some gemstones and some varieties used as abrasives.
Garrett, Pat (1850–1908), U.S. frontier sheriff.
Garrick, David (1717–79), English actor, manager, and dramatist.
Garrison, William Lloyd (1805–79), leader of the U.S. abolitionist movement.
Garter, Order of the, highest order of British knighthood, established in 1348 by King Edward III.
Garter snake, any of the harmless snakes of the genus Thamnophis.
Garvey, Marcus Moziah (1887–1940), U.S. black nationalist leader, born in the British West Indies.
Gary (pop. 116,600), city in northwest Indiana, on Lake Michigan.
Gary, Elbert Henry (1846–1927), U.S. lawyer and industrialist, founder of Gary, Ind.
Gas, form of matter having no fixed shape or volume, as distinct from a solid, which has a distinct shape and volume, or a liquid, with distinct volume.
Gas, gaseous fuel, not to be confused with gasoline, which is a liquid fuel often referred to as gas.
Gas meter, device that measures the volume of gas delivered to a consumer.
Gas oil, one of several liquids obtained by distilling petroleum.
Gas poisoning See: Chemical and biological warfare; First aid.
Gas turbine See: Turbine.
Gasohol, fuel made by mixing 90% unleaded gasoline with 10% alcohol made by fermenting farm crops such as potatoes and grains.
Gasoline, liquid fuel, a mixture of hydrocarbons produced by refining petroleum.
Gasoline engine, engine that uses gasoline as fuel.
Gaspé Peninsula, peninsula, about 150 mi (240 km) long, in the southeastern region of Quebec, Canada, projecting into the Gulf of St.
Gastritis, inflammation of the stomach lining, which can be either acute or chronic.
Gastropod See: Mollusk.
Gastroscope, tubelike instrument for visual examination of the inside of the stomach.
Gates, Horatio (1727–1806), American Revolutionary War general.
Gatling, Richard Jordan (1818–1903), U.S. inventor.
Gatun Lake, artificial lake in Panama Canal Zone created in 1912 by the damming of the Chagres River.
Gaucher's disease, rare, sometimes hereditary, disorder of lipid metabolism resulting in an abnormal accumulation of fats and fatlike substances (lipids) in the liver and spleen, greatly enlarging those organs, as well as jaundice, skeletal lesions, and anemia.
Gaucho, cowboy of the South American pampas (prairies).
Gaudí, Antonio (Antoni Gaudí i Cornet; 1852–1926), Spanish architect.
Gauguin, Paul Eugène-Henri (1848–1903), French postimpressionist painter noted for his pictures of Polynesian life.
Gaul, name given by the ancient Romans to the 2 regions inhabited by the Celts: Gallia Cisalpina, or northern Italy, and Gallia Transalpina, the area roughly equivalent to modern France, including parts of modern Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands.
Gauley River See: Kanawha River.
Gaulle, Charles André Joseph Marie de See: De Gaulle, Charles.
Gauntlet, protective glove worn by medieval knights.
Gauss, Johann Friedrich Carl (1777–1855), German mathematician who discovered the method of least squares (for reducing experimental errors), made many contributions to the theory of numbers, and discovered a non-Euclidean geometry.
Gautama See: Buddha, Gautama.
Gautier, Théophile (1811–72), French poet, novelist, and critic.
Gavial (Gavialis gangeticus), harmless, slender-nosed relative of alligators and crocodiles.
Gawaine, Sir See: Round Table.
Gay, John (1685–1732), English poet and dramatist, author of The Beggar's Opera (1728).
Gay-Lussac, Joseph Louis (1778–1850), French chemist and physicist.
Gay Nineties, common name for the 1890s in U.S. history.
Gay Rights See: Homosexuality.
Gaza Strip, narrow piece of land in the former southwestern Palestine, about 26 mi (42 km) long, 4–6 mi (6.4–8 km) wide.
Gazelle, slender, graceful antelope (genus Gazella) of Asia and Africa.
Gazelle hound See: Saluki.
Gdansk (pop. 461,700; formerly Danzig), large Polish industrial city and port on the Baltic Sea, with some of the world's largest shipyards.
Gear, toothed wheel forming part of a system by which motion is transmitted between rotating shafts.
Gehrig, Lou (Henry Louis Gehrig; 1903–41), U.S. baseball player.
Geiger counter, or Geiger-Müller tube, instrument for detecting the presence of and measuring radiation, such as alpha particles, and beta, gamma, and X rays.
Geisel, Theodor See: Seuss, Dr.
Geissler tube, tube lamp invented by Heinrich Geissler in 1858.
Gelasius, Saint (?–496), Roman Catholic pope elected 492, noted for his 494 letter to Byzantine emperor Anastasius I setting forth the relationship between spiritual authority and secular power.
Gelatin, colorless protein substance obtained from heating collagen, which is extracted from the skin, connective tissue, and bones of cattle and hogs, in boiling water or acid.
Geldof, Bob (1954– ), rock musician who launched a musical mobilization to aid starving people in Africa.
Gell-Mann, Murray (1929– ), U.S. physicist.
Gelsemium, any of various climbing shrubs belonging to the family Loganieaceae, with sword-shaped, glossy leaves, clusters of flowers, and fruit containing winged seeds.
Gem, mineral or stone prized for its beauty and rarity and durable enough to be used in jewelry and for ornaments. Most types of gem are found in igneous rocks. The chief ones have a hardness of 8 or more on the Mohs' scale and are relatively resistant to cleavage and fracture, though some are fragile. They are identified and characterized by their specific gravity and optical properties, e…
Gemayel, Amin (1942– ), president of Lebanon (1982–88), elected after the assassination of his brother, president-elect Bashir Gemayel.
Gemini missions, series of American orbital space flights using the 2-person Gemini capsule.
Genêt, Edmond Charles Édouard (1763–1834), French diplomat, also known as Citizen Genêt, minister to the United States (1793–94).
Gender, in grammar, the designation of nouns and nounlike words as belonging to distinct categories. (The word comes from genus, the Latin word for “kind.”) Many languages divide nouns into the 2 genders of animate and inanimate, but more common are the classifications masculine, feminine, and neuter. These three genders exist in Russian and German, there are remnants of them in Engl…
Gene, smallest particle of hereditary information that is passed from parent to offspring.
Gene mapping, delineation of the genes on a cell's chromosomes, implying the identification of the complete sequence of the DNA, the material that makes up a gene.
Genealogy, study of family origins and history involving the compilation of lists of ancestors showing the line of descent.
General Accounting Office (GAO), independent agency of the U.S.
General Assembly, branch of the United Nations (UN) where all member nations are represented and have a vote.
General Electric Company (GE), large U.S. corporation, manufacturing household and industrial electrical devices.
General Motors Corporation, major U.S. manufacturer of motor vehicles and auto parts.
General Radio Service See: Citizens band radio.
General Services Administration (GSA), independent U.S. federal agency established in 1949 to maintain government property and records.
Generator See: Electric generator.
Genesis, first book of the Old Testament and first of the Five Books of Moses (the Pentateuch), the oldest part of the Old Testament.
Genet, Jean (1910–86), French playwright and novelist.
Genetic code See: Cell.
Genetic counseling, advice sought by couples concerned about the possibilities of passing inherited defects to children.
Genetic engineering, scientific discipline of altering or combining the genes in a living organism, first developed in the 1970s. This is accomplished through the manipulation of DNA, which is the primary component of the heredity-controlling chromosomes. In order to genetically alter an organism, a particular gene must be isolated through a process known as gene splicing, which permits the transf…
Genetics, study of the inheritance of biological characteristics from parent to offspring.
Geneva (pop. 169,500), city and capital of Geneva canton, Switzerland, on Lake Geneva at the Rhône River outlet.
Geneva accords, agreements reached during a series of conferences held in Geneva, Switzerland, Apr.–July 1954, to settle the conflict in Indochina, which was then a French colony.
Geneva Conventions, 4 international agreements signed by a large majority of sovereign nations for the protection of soldiers and civilians from the effects of war.
Genghis Khan (Temujin; 1167?–1227), Mongol ruler of one of the largest empires in world history.
Genie, or Jinni, good or evil supernatural spirit in Muslim and Arab folklore; an invisible body made from smokeless flame and possessing the power to assume human or animal form.
Genoa (pop. 667,600), capital of Genoa province and of the region of Liguria, northwestern Italy, 71 mi (114 km) southwest of Milan.
Genocide, deliberate extermination by a government of a national, ethnic, or religious group.
Gent See: Ghent.
Gentian, any of the herbs of the family Gentianacea (genera Gentiana and Dasystephana), with intense blue or yellow flowers, common in the Northern Hemisphere and often a feature of high mountain slopes.
Gentile, word used in the Bible to refer to people who are not Jewish.
Gentlemen's agreement, informal pact between Japan and the United States in 1907.
Genus See: Classification.
Geochemistry, study of the chemistry of the earth (and other planets).
Geode, hollow mineral formation that is found in limestone areas, usually having an outer layer of chalcedony and an interior lining of crystals, usually quartz.
Geodesic dome See: Fuller, R(ichard) Buckminster.
Geodesy, in geophysics, specialty that seeks to determine the precise size and shape of the earth.
Geodetic center of North America, point located in Osborne County, Kans., and chosen in 1901 by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, a U.S. agency, as the origin of all U.S. mapping.
Geoduck (Panope generosa), edible clam of the Pacific coast that may weigh over 5 lb (2.3 kg).
Geoffrey of Monmouth (1100?–54?), British bishop and chronicler whose History of the Kings of Britain (c.1135), a romantic and fictional account of early Britain, introduced the Arthurian legends to the continent.
Geographic center of North America, point in Pierce County, N.
Geographic center of the United States, point in Butte County, S.
Geography, study of all phenomena associated with the earth's surface, including the forces that act upon it.
Geology, scientific study of the physical history and structure of earth.
Geomagnetic North Pole See: North Pole.
Geomagnetic South Pole See: South Pole.
Geometry, branch of mathematics concerned with spatial figures, their relationships, and deductive reasoning concerning these figures and relationships. Different geometric systems exist, each based on its own rules (axioms or postulates), components (objects), and self-consistent conclusions (theorems). Other geometries exist. Analytic geometry, established in 1637 by René Descartes, signi…
Geomorphology, study of the shape of the earth's surface and the way that landforms are produced.
Geophysics, physics of the planet earth, including studies of the lithosphere (seismology, geomagnetism, gravitation, radioactivity, electric properties, and heat flow) and studies of the atmosphere and hydrosphere.
Geopolitics, study of politics in relation to geography and demography.
George, 6 kings of Great Britain and Ireland. George I (1660–1727; r. 1714–27), great-grandson of James I. Of German origin, he was the first king of the House of Hanover (1698). Unable to speak English, he was unpopular and isolated. George II (1683–1760; r. 1727–60), son of George I, was preoccupied with military adventures and relied heavily on the advice of Queen Ca…
George, 2 kings of Greece.
George, David Lloyd See: Lloyd George, David.
George, Saint, patron saint of England.
George, Stefan (1868–1933), German poet.
George Washington Bridge, suspension bridge across the Hudson River linking New York City and Fort Lee, N.J.
Georgetown (pop. 72,000), capital and largest city of Guyana, on the north (Atlantic) coast of South America, at the mouth of the Demarara River.
Georgia (Republic of), independent country in the Caucasus region, bordered by Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Armenia, and the Black Sea. The capital is Tbilisi. The Caucasus Mountains run across the north of the republic. Georgia has a subtropical climate. Georgians form the majority of the population (70%), and with the remainder comprised of Armenians, Russians, Azerbaijani, Ossetians, Gree…
Georgia (U.S.), state in the southeast United States; bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina in the east, Florida in the south, Alabama in the west, and Tennessee and North Carolina in the north. The southern half of Georgia is a low-lying coastal plain that extends along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The land slopes gradually upward, becoming more hilly near the point at which the plai…
Georgian architecture, 18th-century architectural style in Britain and the British North American colonies.
Geothermal power See: Energy supply; Volcano.
Geranium, any of the cosmopolitan, hardy perennial herbs of the family Geraniaceae, some of which are cultivated in gardens and as house plants, especially the popular pot and bedding plants of the genus Pelargonium.
Gerbil, or sand rat, small rodent of the family Cricetidae found in desert or semidesert regions of Africa and Asia.
Geriatrics, branch of medicine specializing in the care of the elderly.
Germ See: Bacteria; Disease; Virus.
Germ theory See: Medicine.
Germ warfare See: Chemical and biological warfare.
German, official language of Germany and Austria and an official language of Switzerland and Luxembourg, native tongue of more than 100 million people.
German Democratic Republic See: Germany.
German literature, literature of the German-speaking peoples in Europe, primarily the Germans, Austrians, and Swiss. The German language, like its literature, has strong regional characteristics. The language of southern and central Germany is considered High German, while the language of the northern regions is called Low German. Almost without exception, the great works of German literature have…
German measles, or rubella, infectious viral disease causing rash and fever.
German shepherd dog, breed of dog developed in Germany in the early 1900s to be a herder.
German short-haired pointer, dog used by hunters for pointing, following game, and guarding.
German wirehaired pointer, hunting dog and retriever, first bred in Germany in the mid-1800s by crossing the German shorthaired pointer and the poodle-pointer.
Germanium, chemical element, symbol Ge; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Germany, country of central Europe that was divided into 2 nations after World War II. In 1990 the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) joined with the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) to form a single German state. Germany is bordered by Austria and Switzerland in the south; France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands in the west; the North and Baltic seas and Denmark in the n…
Germicide See: Antiseptic; Disinfectant.
Germination, resumption of growth of a plant embryo contained in the seed after a period of reduced metabolic activity or dormancy.
Geronimo (1829–1909), greatest war leader of the Apache tribe of Arizona.
Gerry, Elbridge (1744–1814), U.S. politician for whom the gerrymander (arrangement of election districts virtually to ensure the success of a candidate) was named.
Gerrymander, political practice, usually employed by the party in power as a means of staying in power, involving the division of the electoral boundaries of a city, state, or county to favor a particular party or candidate.
Gershwin, George (1898–1937), U.S. composer.
Gessler See: Tell, William.
Gestalt psychology, school of psychology concerned with the tendency of the human (and even primate) mind to organize perceptions into “wholes”—for example, to hear a symphony rather than a large number of separate notes of different tones—due to the mind's ability to complete patterns from the available stimuli.
Gestapo, abbreviated form of Geheime Staatspolizei (secret state police), the executive arm of the Nazi police force, 1936–45, possessing almost unlimited authority.
Gethsemane (Hebrew: gat semanim, “oil press”), the garden across the Kidron valley, on the Mount of Olives, east of the old city of Jerusalem, where Jesus prayed on the eve of his crucifixion and was betrayed.
Getty, J(ean) Paul (1892–1976), U.S. business executive and one of the richest men in the world.
Gettysburg (pop. 7,025), town in Pennsylvania and seat of Adams County, situated near the Maryland border, about 36 mi (58 km) southwest of Harrisburg.
Gettysburg Address, speech delivered by President Abraham Lincoln at the dedication of the national cemetery at Gettysburg, Pa., on Nov. 19, 1863.
Gettysburg, Battle of, central conflict of the U.S.
Getz, Stan(ley) (1927–91), U.S. jazz musician.
Geyser, hot spring, found in currently or recently volcanic regions, that intermittently jets steam and superheated water into the air.
Ghana, in West Africa, independent country bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (Gulf of Guinea) on the south, by the Ivory Coast on the west, by Togo on the east, and by Burkina Faso on the north. Accra, on the coast, is the capital and largest city. Ghana is generally a low-lying country. Beyond the narrow coastal plain, the Kwahu Plateau extends inland, giving way to rolling savanna in the north. A b…
Ghana, Ancient Empire of, former empire in West Africa, centered between the Niger and the Senegal rivers.
Ghent (pop. 236,500), historic city in western Belgium, at the junction of the Lys (Leie) and Scheldt rivers.
Ghent, Treaty of, treaty concluded on Dec. 24, 1814, in Ghent, Belgium, formally ending the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States.
Ghetto, in European history, street or section of a city once set aside for the compulsory residence of Jews.