Crèvecoeur, Michel-Guillaume Jean de (1735–1813), 18th-century French essayist.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Cretinism to Davis, David
Cretinism, type of dwarfism characterized by mental retardation.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, rare, degenerative disease of the nervous system.
Crewel, type of woolen yarn as well as a form of embroidery crafted from the yarn.
Crib death See: Sudden infant death syndrome.
Cribbage, card game played with standard deck of cards and a special board with pegs for marking the score.
Crick, Francis Harry Compton (1916– ), English biologist who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Maurice Wilkins and James Watson, for establishing the function and structure of DNA, the key substance in transmitting hereditary traits.
Cricket, bat and ball game played extensively in Great Britain and the Commonwealth countries.
Cricket, chirping, hopping insect of the Gryllidae family.
Crime, violation of rules of behavior as laid down in a code of law.
Crime laboratory, law enforcement investigative facility that examines evidence gathered at a crime scene for clues.
Crimea, peninsula, 10,425 sq mi (25,900 sq km), on the northern side of the Black Sea, part of the Ukraine.
Crimean War (1853–56), war between Russia and an alliance of England, France, Turkey, and Sardinia.
Criminal law, that part of the law that defines criminal offenses, establishes procedures for trying accused persons, and fixes penalties for those convicted of criminal offenses. Many offenses once punished as crimes now come under the civil law. These offenses, which usually grow out of carelessness or accidents, are called torts. The penalty is likely to be the payment of damages to the party t…
Criminology, scientific study of the causes of criminal behavior, its development, and its treatment.
Critical mass, minimum mass of material necessary to maintain a spontaneous fission chain reaction.
Criticism, act of analyzing and evaluating any object or activity, often unfavorably.
Crittenden Compromise, proposal sponsored by moderate Southern unionists in 1860 to avert the U.S.
Cro-Magnon, race of primitive humans (Homo sapiens), indistinguishable biologically from modern human beings.
Croaker, any of a family (Sciaenidae) of medium-sized fish found in shallow tropical and temperate seas.
Croatia, republic on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, bordered on the north by Slovenia, on the north east by Hungary and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, on the east by Bosnia, and on the south east by Montenegro. Croatia has a diverse landscape, with flat plains, low mountains, a coastline, and several offshore islands. The interior has a continental climate, the coast has a Mediterranean …
Croce, Benedetto (1866–1952), Italian philosopher and writer.
Crochet (from French croche, “hook”), method of making fabrics, garments, lace, and even rugs, from threads or yarn, using a hook (made of steel, ivory, bone, or wood).
Crockett, Davy (David Crockett; 1786–1836), U.S. frontiersman, representative from Tennessee (1827–31, 1833–35), and folk hero.
Crocodile, carnivorous reptile (order Crocodilia) found in both fresh and salt water in tropical and subtropical regions.
Crocodile bird (Pluvianus aegyptius), African plover that enters the mouth of a crocodile to feed on leeches and scraps of food.
Crocus, genus of perennial herb of the iris family, originally from Asia and the Mediterranean, usually bearing a solitary blue, yellow, or white flower.
Croesus (d. c.547 B.C.), last king of Lydia (r.560–546 B.C.), and last of the Mermnadae dynasty.
Crompton, Samuel (1753–1827), English inventor.
Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658), lord protector of England. As a Puritan and member of Parliament (from 1628) Cromwell joined the Puritan opposition to Charles I. During the first civil war he showed a remarkable ability for military strategy and leadership, and organized the Parliamentary forces in the eastern counties. His famous Ironsides regiment (cavalry) was instrumental in the victory o…
Cromwell, Richard (1626–1712), son of Oliver Cromwell.
Cromwell, Thomas, Earl of Essex (1485?–1540), English statesman under Henry VIII.
Cronin, A.J. (1896–1981), British novelist.
Cronkite, Walter Leland, Jr. (1916–), U.S. broadcast journalist.
Cronus, in Greek mythology, king of the Titans and ruler of earth.
Crookes, Sir William (1832–1919), British scientist and inventor.
Crookes tube, tube developed by English scientist Sir William Crookes to demonstrate the properties of cathode rays.
Cropping system, any of a number of methods of replenishing soil after crops have been harvested.
Croquet, lawn game of French origin (17th century) in which players hit wooden balls with wooden mallets through a series of iron hoops (wickets) stuck in the ground.
Crosby, Bing (Harry Lillis Crosby; 1904–77), U.S. singer and film actor.
Cross, cultural symbol, often consisting of an upright and a crosspiece.
Cross-country, long-distance running sport.
Cross-eye See: Strabismus.
Crossbill, finch (genus Loxia) whose mandibles are so strongly curved that they cross each other.
Crossbow, medieval weapon consisting of a small, powerful bow fixed transversely on a stock, which is grooved to take the missile.
Croton, shrub (genus Codiaeum) of the spurge family.
Croup, condition, common in children 6 mos. to 3 years old, due to allergy or virus infection of the larynx and trachea, causing difficulty in breathing and a hoarse cough due to spasm of the larynx.
Crow, glossy black bird (family Corvidae), one of the most intelligent of birds, related to ravens, magpies, and jays.
Crow, Native American tribe of the Siouan linguistic group, from the North American plains of Montana and Wyoming.
Crowfoot (1830–90), Canadian Blackfoot chief who discouraged tribal warfare and advocated peace.
Crude oil See: Petroleum.
Cruikshank, George (1792–1878), English artist and illustrator famous for his caricatures.
Cruiser, warship designed for speed and long-range attack, in size between the destroyer and aircraft carrier.
Crusades, under papal authority, wars waged in the Middle Ages (11th–13th centuries) by European Christians against the Muslims to recover the Holy Land, particularly Jerusalem. The initial impetus for the Crusades was a revival of religious fervor, as urged by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont (1095); however, conquest of territory, the attraction of riches, and the possibility of e…
Crustacean, invertebrate animal (phylum Arthropoda) with a bilaterally symmetrical segmented body, including crabs, shrimps, lobsters, and barnacles.
Cryobiology, the study of the effects of extremely low temperatures on living organisms, generally for the purpose of preserving living material for future use.
Cryogenics, or low-temperature physics, science that studies the production, maintenance, and effects of very low temperatures.
Cryotron, miniature switch used in computers, consisting of a short wire around which is wound a fine control coil, kept at the temperature of liquid helium so that the wire and coil are superconducting.
Crystal, solid substance in which the individual molecules, atoms, or ions are arranged in a geometrical form. Almost all pure substances (chemical elements, compounds, mixtures) can form solid crystals. Substances that do not crystallize are called amorphous. Crystals may be formed from solutions, as salt crystals form when a pool of sea water evaporates in the sun; when liquids solidify, as when…
Ctenophore, or comb jelly, marine invertebrate (phylum Ctenophora) having 8 radially arranged combs of ciliated plates (ctenes) on its body used for swimming.
Cuauhtémoc (c. 1495–1525), last Aztec emperor of Mexico, nephew and son-in-law of Montezuma.
Cub Scouts See: Boy Scouts.
Cuba (Republic of), tropical island republic in the Caribbean Sea, west of Haiti, east of the Gulf of Mexico, north of Jamaica, and 90 mi (145 km) south of Key West, Fla. Cuba is the largest island in the West Indies, occupying 42,804 sq mi (110,860 sq km), including the Isle of Pines and other offshore islands. The capital is Havana. Cuba has 3 main mountain ranges: the Sierra de los Organos in t…
Cube and cube root, terms in geometry.
Cubeb, dried, berrylike fruit of a climbing plant (Piper cubeba) of the pepper family.
Cubism, art movement that began c. 1907, Paris, as an intellectual response to the emotional and sensual art of previous times, primarily as represented in painting.
Cuchulainn, great hero of the Ulster cycle of Irish epic mythological literature.
Cuckoo, bird of the family Cuculidae, found in the tropics and in temperate regions.
Cuckoo-shrike, any of several species (genus Coracina) of songbirds of the family Campephagidae.
Cucumber, common garden vegetable (Cucumis sativus) of the gourd family.
Cuenca (pop. 195,000), city in the Andes Mountains of south central Ecuador.
Cuernavaca (pop. 281,700), capital of the state of Morelos in south central Mexico.
Cuffe, Paul (1759–1817), U.S. merchant and sea captain, part African American, part Native American, who encouraged the resettlement of freed slaves in Sierra Leone, Africa.
Cuisenaire method, teaching system by which students are introduced to mathematical concepts by manipulating 10 rods of different colors that vary proportionately in length.
Cullen, Countee See: Harlem Renaissance.
Cult, religious worship of a supernatural object or of a representation of it.
Cultural lag, term developed in the 1920s by U.S. sociologist William F.
Cultural Revolution See: China.
Culture, in biology, a colony of living microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, grown in a prepared medium (a watery solution of chemicals that supplies the microorganisms with nutrients).
Culture, term for the general way of life of a human society, including ways of thinking, beliefs, customs, language, technology, art, music, literature, and traditions.
Cumberland (pop. 101,643), U.S. city in western Maryland, located at Cumberland Narrows.
Cumberland Gap, mountain pass through the Cumberland Mountains of the Appalachians near the border of Kentucky and Tennessee.
Cumberland Mountains, or Cumberland Plateau, part of the Appalachian Mountain Range.
Cumberland River, major tributary of the Ohio River, originating in the Cumberland Plateau and flowing 687 mi (1,106 km) before joining it.
Cummings, e.e. (Edward Estlin Cummings; 1894–1962), U.S. poet whose verse is known for its deliberate violation of grammatical rules, unusual words, and idiosyncratic punctuation and typography.
Cumulus See: Cloud.
Cunard, Sir Samuel (1787–1865), British shipowner, founder of the Cunard line.
Cuneiform, system of writing developed in the ancient Middle East during the 4th millennium B.C.
Cunningham, Merce (1919–), U.S. dancer and choreographer noted for his abstract dances incorporating pure, isolated movements without emotional overtones.
Cuomo, Mario Matthew (1932–), U.S. politician.
Cupid, or Amor, in Roman mythology, the god of love, the son and companion of Venus, identified with the Greek god, Eros, son of Aphrodite and Ares.
Cuquenán Falls, also called Kukenaam, one of the world's highest waterfalls, on the Cuquenán River along the Guyana-Venezuelan border.
Curaçao, island (178 sq mi/461 sq km) in the West Indies, an autonomous part of the Netherlands.
Curare, any of a number of alkaloid plant extracts originally used by South American tribes to make poison arrow tips.
Curassow, large forest-dwelling bird (especially genus Crax) with dark plumage and a crest of curved feathers.
Curia Regis, in England, the King's Council, also called King's Court, a medieval council of nobles and church officials who met to advise the king on state issues such as legislation and taxation.
Curie, in physics, unit that measures radioactivity.
Curie, Marie Sklodowska (1867–1934), Polish-born French physicist and two-time winner of the Nobel Prize (in physics, 1903, and chemistry, 1911).
Curie, Pierre (1859–1906), French physicist, professor at the Sorbonne, and winner, with his wife, Marie, and A.
Curium, chemical element, symbol Cm; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Curlew, migratory wading bird of pastures and marshes (especially genus Numenius), characterized by a long, down-curving bill.
Curling, game introduced from Scotland and played in the United States and Canada for over 150 years.
Curly coated retriever, hunting dog with a black or liver-colored coat of tight curls, which enables it to endure thorny bushes, challenging terrain, and cold-water temperatures when retrieving shot game.
Currant, bushy plant (genus Ribes) of temperate regions; also, the fruit of the plant.
Currency See: Money.
Currier & Ives, establishment of U.S. lithographers who produced over 4,000 popular color prints depicting sports, historic events, and scenes of daily life.
Curry, Jabez Lamar Monroe (1825–1903), U.S. educator who promoted the education of both black and white children in the South.
Curry, John Steuart (1897–1946), U.S. painter best known for his striking portrayals of rural Midwestern life.
Curtis, Charles (1860–1936), vice president of the United States under Herbert Hoover (1929–33).
Curtis, Cyrus Hermann Kotzschmar (1850–1933), U.S. founder of a publishing empire.
Curtiss, Glenn Hammond (1873–1930), U.S. pioneer in aviation, who made the first public flight in the United States (1908), opened the first pilots' school (1909), built engines for the first U.S. dirigibles, and built the first planes for the U.S.
Curzon Line, boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union, proposed by the Allies in 1919, after World War I.
Cusco, or Cuzco (pop. 225,600), city in the Andes Mountains of southern Peru.
Cush See: Kush.
Cushing, Harvey Williams (1869–1939), U.S. surgeon.
Cuspid See: Teeth.
Custer, George Armstrong (1839–76), controversial U.S. cavalry officer.
Custis, Martha See: Washington, Martha Custis.
Custom, accepted practice or manner of doing things, established by tradition.
Customs Service, United States, branch of the Department of Treasury responsible for levying and collecting taxes on imported goods.
Customs union, agreement between two or more countries aimed at reducing tariffs to encourage trade.
Cutlassfish, long, silver-colored saltwater fish (Trichiurus lepturus) found in the western Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.
Cuttlefish, small cephalopod (family Sepiidae) of Old World coastal waters.
Cutworm, any of more than 20,000 species of caterpillars of the owlet moth or miller family, with the capacity to destroy field crops and fruit trees.
Cuvier, Baron (Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier; 1769–1832), French scientist known for his pioneer work in comparative anatomy.
Cyanides, group of compounds containing the cyanide radical, CN (a carbon atom linked to a nitrogen atom).
Cyanosis, bluish discoloration of skin and mucous membranes.
Cybernetics, branch of learning that deals with control mechanisms and the transmission of information.
Cycad, tropical plant of the cycas family, one of the most primitive living seed-bearing plants.
Cyclamen, genus of cultivated plant of the primrose family native to the Mediterranean.
Cyclone, closed system of winds revolving around a low-pressure area. The air rotates counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. In the tropics, particularly in the Indian Ocean (where they are sometimes known as typhoons), cyclones bring severe tropical storms with winds of 200–300 mph (320–480 kmph). In temperate regions, where they are mo…
Cyclops (plural Cyclopes), in Greek mythology, shaggy giant with a single large eye in the center of his forehead.
Cyclosporine, drug used to prevent rejection of tissues and organs in transplant patients.
Cyclotron, magnetic resonance particle accelerator.
Cygnus, the Swan, large constellation visible in the Northern Hemisphere sky.
Cylinder, 3-dimensional figure consisting of a curved lateral surface and equal parallel ends, or bases.
Cymbal, percussion instrument of very ancient origin.
Cynic philosophy, ancient Greek school of philosophy characterized by the unconventional way of life of its adherents.
Cypress, family of cone-bearing trees, including arborvitae, juniper, and cedar.
Cyprus (Republic of) island republic situated in the northeastern Mediterranean Sea, about 40 mi (60 km) south of Turkey and 60 mi (97 km) west of Syria. Cyprus, 3,572 sq mi (9,251 sqkm) in area, is the Mediterranean's third largest island. The capital is Nicosia. Two main mountain ranges dominate the island: the Kyrenia ridge in northern-central Cyprus and the Troödos Mountains in t…
Cyrano de Bergerac, Savinien de (1619–55), French author.
Cyril of Alexandria, Saint (378?–444), Christian theologist and bishop, known primarily for his campaign against Nestorius, the bishop of Constantinople, who denied that the Virgin Mary was the mother of God.
Cyrus the Great (c.590–529 B.C.), founder of the Persian empire.
Cyst, abnormal, sac-like growth in the body.
Cystic fibrosis, CF, or mucoviscidosis, hereditary disease, usually appearing in early childhood, characterized by an abnormality of the exocrine or mucus-screting glands.
Czech Republic, independent country in central Europe, bordering Germany on the west and northwest, Poland on the north and northeast, Slovakia on the southeast, and Austria on the south There are 2 main natural and historical regions. (1) Bohemia, in the west, comprises the Bohemian Massif, the Ore Mountains, and the Giant Mountains, which serve as natural boundaries between the republic and neig…
Czechoslovakia, former nation in central Europe, consisting of the present Czech Republic and Slovakia. With the disintegration of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I, the Czechs and Slovaks proclaimed the independent republic of Czechoslovakia (1918), which developed as a Western-style democracy. Seized by Nazi Germany (1938–39), Czechoslovakia came under Russian domination after Wor…
Czechs, Slavic people who settled in Bohemia and Moravia in central Europe in the early Middle Ages and accounted for about two-thirds of Czechoslovakia's population.
Czechs, Slavic people who settled in Bohemia and Moravia in central Europe in the early Middle Ages and accounted for about two-thirds of Czechoslovakia's population.
Czerny, Karl (1791–1857), Austrian musician and teacher.
Czerny, Karl (1791–1857), Austrian musician and teacher.
D, fourth letter of the English alphabet.
D'Amboise, Jacques (1934– ), U.S. dancer and choreographer.
D'Annunzio, Gabriele (1863–1938), Italian writer and adventurer, initially famous for his poetry, whose sensuous imagery reflected his own life-style.
D'Aulaire, husband and wife team who wrote and illustrated children's books.
Da Gama, Vasco (1469?–1524), sea captain from Portugal, the first to open sea routes for trade between Europe and Asia.
Da Nang, or Tourane (pop.490,000) large port city in southern Vietnam on the South China Sea.
Da Vinci, Leonardo (1452–1519), Florentine artist and scientist, whose creative and intellectual talents made him the supreme genius of the Italian Renaissance. One of the greatest painters of the period, he was also an architect, engineer, astronomer, anatomist, botanist, inventor, poet, and musician. Few completed works survive; scholars attribute this to Leonardo's restless moveme…
Dacca See: Dhaka.
Dachau, concentration camp in Germany where many thousands, mostly Poles and Jews, were murdered by the Nazis.
Dachshund, small (5–9 in/13–25 cm), short-legged dog with a long body, long ears, and a smooth, bronze (or black and bronze) coat.
Dada, artistic movement born in Zurich and later spreading to New York, Berlin, and Paris, 1915–22.
Daddy longlegs, or harvestman, relative of the spider with a small rounded body and 8 extremely long and delicate legs.
Daedalus, in Greek mythology, architect and sculptor.
Daffodil, any of several bulbous, perennial plants (genus Narcissus) of the amaryllis family, having yellow trumpet-shaped flowers.
Dagger, short, knifelike weapon for stabbing, with a sharp-edged, pointed blade.
Daghestan, autonomous republic in southeast Russia, in the Russian Federation, bounded by the Caspian Sea on the east, inhabited by Russians, Azerbaijanis, and various tribes of the Caucasus Mountain region.
Daguerreotype, early photographic process in which a light-sensitive silver-coated copperplate was treated with iodine vapor.
Dahlia, any of several perennial plants (genus Dahlia) of the composite family, having tuberous roots and red, purple, yellow, or white flowers.
Dahomey See: Benin.
Daimler, Gottlieb Wilhelm (1834–1900), German engineer who devised an internal combustion engine (1885) and used it in building one of the first automobiles, about 1886.
Dairy farming, all the processes producing milk and milk products.
Daisy, any of various common wild plants of the composite family.
Dakar (pop. 800,000), capital and largest city of Senegal, on the far western tip of Africa.
Dakota See: North Dakota; South Dakota; Sioux.
Dakota See: Sioux.
Daladier, Édouard (1884–1970), French premier (1933–34, 1938–40) who, with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, signed the 1938 Munich Agreement abandoning Czechoslovakia to Hitler.
Dalai Lama, title of the head of the Tibetan Buddhists.
Dale, Sir Henry Hallet (1875–1968), British biologist who discovered and described the properties of acetylcholine, an agent in the chemical transmission of nerve impulses.
Daley, Richard Joseph (1902–76), U.S. politician, state senator from Illinois (1939–46), mayor of Chicago (1955–76).
Dali, Salvador (1904–89), Spanish painter, one of the masters of surrealism.
Dallapiccola, Luigi (1904–75), Italian composer of vocal works and operas who adapted the 12-tone technique to his own emotionally expressive and melodic style.
Dallas (pop. 1,022,500), second-largest city in Texas, founded in 1841 on the Trinity River.
Dallas, George Mifflin (1792–1864), U.S. vice president (1845–49) under James Polk.
Dalles (singular: dell; from French dalle, “slab of stone”), deep natural gorges worn into rock by rapidly moving water.
Dalmatia, mountainous region and province of Croatia, bordering the Adriatic Sea and including about 300 islands.
Dalmatian, sturdy, medium-sized dog thought to have originated in Dalmatia (on the Adriatic Sea) many centuries ago.
Dalton, John (1766–1844), English scientist who originated the modern chemical atomic theory.
Dam, barrier built across a river to hold back the water.
Damascus (pop. 1,378,000), capital and largest city of Syria, founded c.2,000 B.C. and possibly the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world.
Damien, Father (Joseph de Veuster; 1840–89), Belgian Roman Catholic missionary who worked in the leper colony of Molokai Island, Hawaii, which he turned from a mere refuge into a thriving community.
Damon and Pythias, 2 youths from Greek legend whose commitment, friendship, and faithfulness to each other was demonstrated when Dionysius, leader of the city of Syracuse, condemned Pythias to death.
Damp, in mining, name given to various dangerous gases.
Dampier, William (1652–1715), English explorer.
Damping-off, disease of new plants caused by fungi in the soil.
Damrosch, name of a father and 2 sons, German-born musicians active in U.S. music education.
Danaë See: Perseus.
Dana, Charles Anderson (1819–97), U.S. journalist who spent 1841–46 in the Utopian Brook Farm community and later joined the New York Tribune, becoming its managing editor in 1849.
Dana, Richard Henry, Jr. (1815–82), U.S. lawyer, social reformer, and author of Two Years Before the Mast (1840).
Dance, art of moving the body rhythmically, usually to music.
Dandelion, perennial herb (genus Taraxacum) of the composite family.
Dandie Dinmont terrier, short-legged dog originating in Scotland and England, weighing 18 to 24 lb (8 to 11 kg) and standing 8 to 11 in (20 to 28 cm) tall at the shoulders.
Dandruff, thin, dry scales of skin that flake off the scalp.
Daniel, Book of, Old Testament book, relating events in the life of the prophet Daniel, who was brought to Nebuchadnezzar's court during the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews, during the 6th century B.C.
Danilova, Alexandra (1904– ), Russian-born U.S. ballerina.
Dante Alighieri (1265–1321), Italian poet, regarded as among the greatest Italian writers in history.
Danton, Georges Jacques (1759–94), French revolutionary political leader.
Danube River, second longest river of Europe.
Danzig See: Gdansk.
Daoism See: Taoism.
Daphne, in Greek mythology, nymph who wished to remain chaste but was pursued by Apollo.
DAR See: Daughters of the American Revolution.
Dar es Salaam (pop. 1,400,000), former capital and largest city of Tanzania.
Darío, Rubén (Félix Rubén García Sarmiento; 1867–1916), Nicaraguan poet.
Dardanelles, narrow strait 40 mi (60 km) long in northwestern Turkey, separating Asia Minor from Europe, called the Hellespont in ancient times.
Dare, Virginia (b. 1587), first child born in America of English parents.
Darius, Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty.
Darjeeling (pop. 57,600), city on the lower slopes of the Himalayas, summer capital of West Bengal state, India.
Dark Ages, popular term for the period in European history from the 5th to the 15th centuries.
Dark matter, most of the invisible material existing in galaxies and clusters of galaxies.
Darling, Ding (Jay N.
Darling, Grace Horsley (1815–42), English heroine, daughter of a lighthouse keeper.
Darling River, Australia's longest river.
Darnley, Henry Stuart, Lord (1545–67), second husband of Mary Queen of Scots.
Darrow, Clarence Seward (1857–1938), U.S. lawyer, defense attorney, renowned for his opposition to capital punishment and his championing of underdogs.
Darter See: Anhinga.
Dartmouth (pop. 65,200), city in Nova Scotia, Canada, on Halifax Harbor, linked with Halifax on the western shore by a mile-long bridge.
Dartmouth College Case, U.S.
Darts, game of skill in which small wooden and metal feathered darts are thrown at a bull's-eye target.
Darwin (pop. 73,000), largest city, administrative center, and chief port of the Northern Territory of Australia, on the Timor Sea.
Darwin, Charles Robert (1809–82), English naturalist who formulated and elaborated the theory of evolution by natural selection.
Darwin, Erasmus (1731–1802), English biologist and poet, grandfather of Charles Darwin.
Date Line, International See: International Date Line.
Date palm, date-producing tree (Phoenix dactylifera) of hot, dry climates.
Datura, genus of plants of the nightshade family, having large, funnel-shaped flowers and yielding the strong narcotics atropine and hyoscyamine.
Daudet, Alphonse (1840–97), French writer noted for his stories of his native Provence, in southern France.
Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), patriotic, conservative women's organization founded in 1890 and made up of direct descendants of participants in the American Revolution.
Daughters of the Confederacy, United, U.S. organization founded 1894, whose members are descendants of veterans of the Confederate army and navy.
Daumier, Honoré (1808–79), French caricaturist, painter, and sculptor.
Davenport (pop. 350,861), city in east central Iowa, on the Mississippi River.
David (c.1012–c.972 B.C.), king of ancient Israel, successor of Saul, and reputed author of many psalms.
David, name of 2 kings of Scotland.
David, Gerard (1460–1523), last master of the Bruges school of painting.
David, Jacques Louis (1748–1825), French painter and leader of the neoclassical movement.
David, Saint (c.520–600), patron saint of Wales.
Davidson, Jo (1883–1952), U.S. sculptor who lived in Paris.
Davies, Arthur Bowen (1862–1928), U.S. painter in the romantic-idealist tradition.
Davis, Benjamin Oliver (1877–1970), first African-American general in the U.S.
Davis, Bette (1908–90), U.S. film actress who won Academy Awards for her roles in Dangerous (1935) and Jezebel (1938).
Davis, David (1815–86), U.S. politician and Supreme Court justice 1862–77.