Sato, Eisaku (1901–75), prime minister of Japan (1964–72).
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Sato, Eisaku to Serra, Junípero
Saturation, in chemistry and physics, term applied to a state in which further increase in a variable above a critical value produces no increase in a resultant effect.
Saturn, in early Roman mythology, god of fertility and planting, eventually identified with the Greek god Cronus as father of Jupiter, Juno, Ceres, Pluto, and Neptune.
Saturn, second-largest planet in the Solar System, the sixth from the sun. Until the discovery of Uranus (1781), Saturn was the outermost planet known. It orbits the sun in 29.46 years at a mean distance of 886.7 million mi (1.427 billion km). Saturn has the lowest density of any planet in the Solar System, less than that of water, and may contain over 60% hydrogen by mass. Its total mass i…
Saturnalia, in ancient Rome, festival honoring Saturn, god of fertility and planting.
Satyr, in Greek mythology, male spirit of the forests and mountains, often shown as part man and part goat, with hooves, tail, and pointed ears.
Saucer, flying See: Unidentified flying object.
Saudi Arabia, desert kingdom occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula of southwestern Asia. Parts of the frontiers of Saudi Arabia have yet to be accurately determined. Estimates of the country's area vary from about 830,000 sq mi (2,149,700 sq km) to 927,000 sq mi (2,400,930 sq km). It is bordered on the north by Jordan, Iraq, and Kuwait; on the east by the United Arab Emirates, the Persian…
Sauk, or Sac, Native American tribe of the Algonquian language group.
Saul, first king of Israel (1000 B.C.).
Sault Sainte Marie (pop. 80,900), French settlement founded (1668) on the north bank of the St.
Saurischian See: Dinosaur.
Sauvé, Jeanne Mathilde (1922– ), first woman to serve as Speaker of the House of Commons (1980–84) and governor general (representative of the British monarch; 1984–89) of Canada.
Savanna, tropical grassland of South America and particularly Africa, lying between equatorial forests and dry deserts.
Savannah, name of 2 historic U.S. steamships.
Savannah (pop. 147,000), port city in southeastern Georgia near the mouth of the Savannah River, seat of Chatham County.
Savannah River, river forming the Georgia-South Carolina border, arising from the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca rivers and flowing southeast into the Atlantic Ocean.
Savings bank, financial institution that encourages saving by individual depositors, paying them interest or dividends, while providing funds to borrowers, who pay interest.
Savings bond, interest-bearing bond issued to an individual by the government in specific denominations, functioning as a loan to the government for a fixed term.
Savings and loan association (S&L), or thrift institution (formerly, building and loan association), U.S. financial institution that accepts private savings of depositors, investing them primarily in home mortgages. Such institutions, the first of which was founded in Pennsylvania in 1831, originally were mutual, that is, owned and operated by the depositors. They are now predominantly capi…
Savonarola, Girolamo (1452–98), Italian religious reformer.
Savoy, powerful dynasty of northwestern Italy that at times ruled portions of Italy, France, and Switzerland.
Saw, cutting tool consisting of a flat blade or circular disk, having on its edge a row of sharp teeth of various designs, usually set alternately.
Saw Maung (1928– ), president of the Union of Myanmar (Burma, 1988–92).
Sawfish, any of a family (Pristidae) of sharklike fish having “saws” of cartilage set with 2 rows of teeth on their snouts.
Sawfly, insect related to the wasps.
Saxifrage, any of a genus (Saxifraga) of small rock plants whose leaves grow in a rosette at the base of the stem and whose flowers grow in clusters at the tip of the stem.
Saxons, Germanic people who, with the Angles and the Jutes, founded settlements in Britain from A.D. 450 supplanting the Celts.
Saxony, state in eastern Germany.
Saxophone, brass musical instrument, classified as a woodwind since its sound is produced by blowing through a reed.
Sayers, Dorothy (1893–1957), English writer of detective stories and creator of the popular, impeccably aristocratic and erudite Lord Peter Whimsey.
Scabies, infectious skin disease caused by a mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) that burrows under the skin, often of the hands or feet; it causes an intensely itchy skin condition that is partly due to allergy to the mite.
Scalawag, in U.S. history, derisive term employed by Southern Democrats for Southern whites who cooperated with Republican Reconstruction governments after the Civil War.
Scale insect, any of various small insects of the order Homoptera (especially family Coccidae) with a flattened body covered by a layer, or “scale,” of waxy secretion.
Scale, weighing, instrument for measuring weight.
Scalia, Antonin (1936– ), U.S.
Scallop, bivalve mollusk (family Pectinidae) distinguished by a shell whose valves are rounded, with a series of ribs radiating across the surface in relief.
Scandinavia, region of northwestern Europe.
Scandinavian literature, literature of Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) and usually including Finland and Iceland, from the end of the Viking Age (c.1100) to the present. The peoples of Scandinavia speak closely related North Germanic languages, except those of Finland, whose language is related to Hungarian. Early literature of the 12th and 13th centuries captured works of the oral tradi…
Scandium, chemical element, symbol Sc; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Scapegoat, in the Old Testament (Leviticus 16:8), goat designated by the Jewish high priest on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) to bear the sins of the people and to be sent out into the wilderness.
Scar, mark resulting from the healing of a wound or disease process in a tissue, especially the skin.
Scarab, family (Scarabaeidae) of beetles that includes the dung beetles, chafers, and dor beetles.
Scarlatti, name of 2 Italian composers of the baroque period.
Scarlet fever, infectious disease caused by certain strains of streptococcus.
Schacht, Hjalmar Horace Greeley (1877–1970), German financier and banker.
Schaller, George Beals (1933– ), U.S. zoologist and advocate for the protection of endangered species.
Schally, Andrew Victor (1926– ), Polish-born U.S. medical researcher who shared the 1977 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Rosalyn S.
Schapiro, Meyer (1904– ), Lithuanian-born U.S. art historian and critic.
Schawlow, Arthur (1921– ), U.S. physicist who did pioneering work in the 1950s that led to the construction of the first laser.
Scheele, Carl Wilhelm (1742–86), Swedish pharmacist and chemist.
Schelde River, important navigable waterway of northwestern Europe.
Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775–1854), German philosopher.
Scherzo (Italian, “joke”), light, lively musical composition.
Schiele, Egon (1890–1918), Austrian artist.
Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von (1759–1805), German playwright, poet, writer on philosophy, history, and aesthetics. Schiller's highly successful early plays, including The Robbers (1781) and Don Carlos (1787), articulated his violent opposition to tyranny. In Weimar he became professor at the Univ. of Jena (1789) and married writer Charlotte von Lengefeld. At this time he a…
Schipperke (Flemish; “little skipper”), Belgian breed of dog once used to guard canal barges.
Schirra, Walter Marty, Jr. (1923– ), U.S. astronaut, 1959–69.
Schism, Great See: Pope.
Schist, common group of metamorphic rocks that have acquired a high degree of schistosity, i.e., the parallel arrangement of sheety, or prismatic, minerals resulting from regional metamorphism.
Schistosomiasis, or bilharziasis, parasitic disease caused by the schistosome, a type of flatworm.
Schizophrenia (formerly called dementia praecox), type of psychosis characterized by confusion of identity, hallucinations, delusion, and illogical thought.
Schlesinger, name of 2 famous 20th-century U.S. historians.
Schleswig-Holstein, state in northern Germany, 6,046 sq mi (15,660 sq km) bordering Denmark.
Schliemann, Heinrich (1822–90), German archeologist, best known for his discoveries of Troy (1871–90) and Mycenae (1876–78).
Schmalkaldic League, alliance of German Protestant states during the Reformation, formed in 1531 for defense against the Catholic Holy Roman emperor Charles V.
Schmidt, Helmut (1918– ), chancellor of West Germany (1974–82).
Schmitt, Harrison Hagan (1935– ), geologist, astronaut, politician.
Schnauzer See: Giant schnauzer; Miniature schnauzer; Standard schnauzer.
Schnitzler, Arthur (1862–1931), Austrian playwright.
Schoenberg, Arnold (1874–1951), German composer, theorist, and teacher who revolutionized music by introducing serial, or 12-tone, music.
Schofield, John McAllister (1831–1906), U.S.
Scholarship, grant-in-aid awarded to a student.
Scholasticism, philosophical system of medieval Church teachers, or scholastics, who applied philosophic (primarily Aristotelian) ideas to Christian doctrine.
Schongauer, Martin (1450?–91),German painter and engraver.He was one of the first engravers to use copper plates, and his delicate, skillful work influenced Albrecht Dürer and other German artists.
School, institution whose primary purpose is to impart knowledge. The most numerous and the most important kinds of schools are those used to educate the young, from early childhood to early adulthood, preparing them for the roles they will play in society, the economy, and in political life. Schools provide students with knowledge, from the basics of reading, writing, and reasoning, to the most s…
Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788–1860), German philosopher, noted for his doctrine of the will.
Schrödinger, Erwin (1887–1961), Austrian-born Irish physicist and philosopher of science who shared with Paul Dirac the 1933 Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery of the Schrödinger wave equation, describing the wavelike behavior of electrons, which is of fundamental importance in studies of quantum mechanics.
Schrieffer, John Robert (1931– ), U.S. physicist who shared with Leon Cooper and John Bardeen the 1972 Nobel Prize in physics for their work on superconductivity.
Schubert, Franz Peter (1797–1828), Viennese composer.
Schulz, Charles Monroe (1922– ), U.S. cartoonist, creator of “Peanuts.” The “Peanuts” series, which Schulz began in 1950, is about young children but appeals to adults as well in its benign humor and insight into human foibles.
Schuman, Robert (1886–1963), French politician.
Schuman, William (1910–92), U.S. composer.
Schumann, Clara (1819–96), German pianist and composer.
Schumann, Robert (Alexander) (1810–56), German composer and critic, a leader of the romantic movement.
Schumpeter, Joseph Alois (1883–1950), Moravian-born U.S. economist.
Schurz, name of German-born U.S. couple prominent in public life.
Schuyler, Philip John (1733–1804), American soldier and politician who served as major-general in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War.
Schuylkill River, river rising in east-central Pennsylvania and flowing southeast 130 mi (210 km) into the Delaware River near Philadelphia.
Schwartz, Delmore (1913–66), U.S. poet admired for his rhapsodic yet philosophic style.
Schwartz, Melvin (1932– ), U.S. physicist.
Schwarzkopf, Elisabeth (1915– ), German soprano noted for performances in Mozart and Strauss operas in Europe, and later for her expressive Lieder recitals there and in the United States.
Schweitzer, Albert (1875–1965), German physician, theologian, missionary, musician, and philosopher.
Schwinger, Julian Seymour (1918– ), U.S. physicist who shared with Richard P.
Sciatica, pain in the distribution of the sciatic nerve in the leg caused by compression or irritation of the nerve.
Science, systematic study of nature and of individual and social human behavior. Science is distinguished from other intellectual disciplines, like the arts and humanities, by several key characteristics. It is based upon observation, either by the unaided senses or with the help of instruments that increase the power of the senses, like microscopes or telescopes. Science requires the careful coll…
Science fiction, literary genre based on speculation about scientific or social development.
Science project, independent project in which the student studies, explores, and demonstrates principles of science.
Scientific creationism, belief that current forms of life did not evolve from simpler forms over millions of years but were created more or less as they exist now.
Scientology, religio-scientific movement stressing self-redemption, which originated in the United States in the 1950s and was incorporated as a church in 1965.
Scipio, Publius Cornelius (Scipio Africanus Major, Scipio the Elder; 234?–183? B.C.), Roman general.
Scissors, cutting tool made of 2 metal blades joined at a pivot point.
Scoliosis, curvature of the spine to one side, with twisting.
Scone, Stone of, ceremonial stone in Westminster Abbey, London, on which British monarchs are crowned.
Scopes trial, 1925 prosecution of a biology teacher, John T.
Scopolamine, or hyoscine, alkaloid drug derived from plants of the Solenaceae (nightshade) family (especially genus Scopolia) and used as a depressant.
Scorpion, any of an order (Scorpionida) of terrestrial arachnids having two claws held in front of the head and a stinging tail curled forward over the back.
Scorpionfly, harmless insect (family Panorpidae) with transparent or colored wings and long, dangling legs.
Scorsese, Martin (1942– ), U.S. film director.
Scotland, former kingdom now part of the United Kingdom. It is bounded by England in the south, the Atlantic Ocean in the north and west, and the North Sea in the east. Covering northern Britain and the Hebrides, Orkney, and Shetland islands, Scotland is 30,414 sq mi (78,772 sq km) in area. It is divided into 3 main land regions: the Highlands, the Central Lowlands, and the Southern Uplands. Great…
Scotland Yard, headquarters of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) of the London Metropolitan Police since 1829.
Scott, Barbara Ann (1928– ), Canadian figure skater.
Scott, Robert Falcon (1868–1912), English explorer remembered for his fatal attempt, on his second antarctic expedition, to be the first to reach the South Pole.
Scott, Sir Walter (1771–1832), Scottish poet and the foremost romantic novelist in the English language.
Scott, Winfield (1786–1866), U.S. political and military leader, known as “Old Fuss and Feathers” for his obsession with procedure and detail and for his elaborate uniforms.
Scottish deerhound, dog bred by the Scottish nobility since the 16th century to hunt deer.
Scottish terrier, or Scottie, breed of dog with short legs, stocky body, large head, and a gray, tan, or black wiry coat.
Scottsboro Cases, U.S. legal cases involving nine black youths accused in 1931 of raping two white women on a freight train in Alabama.
Scottsdale (pop. 88,622), city in south-central Arizona and now a suburb of Phoenix.
Scotus See: Duns Scotus, John.
Scouring rush See: Horsetail.
Scout See: Boy Scouts; Girl Scouts and Girl Guides.
Scranton (pop. 88,117), city in northeastern Pennsylvania, situated on the Lackawanna River near the Pocono Mountains.
Scranton, William Warren (1917– ), entrepreneur and politician, governor of Pennsylvania, 1963–67.
Screw, simple machine consisting of a cylindrical or conical body around which is wrapped a spiral plane or thread, and used as a fastener, propeller, and part of many more complex machines.
Scriabin, Alexander (1872–1915), Russian composer and pianist.
Scribe (Latin scrivere, “to write”), person hired to write out letters, books, and documents by hand.
Scribe, Augustin Eugène (1791–1861), French playwright and opera librettist.
Scribner, family name of U.S. book publishers.
Scripps, Edward Wyllis (1854–1926), U.S. newspaper publisher, founder of the first newspaper chain and of the wire service that eventually became United Press International (UPI).
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, center for advanced study and research in oceanography, in La Jolla, Calif.
Scrofula, tuberculosis of the lymph nodes of the neck, usually acquired by drinking infected milk.
Scruple, in the system of apothecaries' weights, unit equal to 20 grains (1.296 g).
Scuba diving See: Diving, deep-sea; Skin diving.
Sculpin, bullhead, or sea scorpion, family of bottom-dwelling fishes (Cottidae) distinguished by a long body, large, wide head, and spiny gills and dorsal fin.
Sculpture, artistic creation of three-dimensional forms in materials such as stone, metal, wood, or even foam rubber. …
Scurvy, disease caused by the gross deficiency of vitamin C.
Scylla and Charybdis, in Greek mythology, perils faced by Odysseus in the Straits of Messina.
Sea anemone, cylindrical marine polyp with a ring of tentacles, belonging to the division of the animal kingdom known as Cnideria, or Coelenterata.
Sea COW, any of an order (Sirenia) of tropical, herbivorous, aquatic mammals.
Sea cucumber, any of a class (Holothuroidea) of sea animal of the echinoderm group, which also contains sea urchins and starfish.
Sea elephant See: Seal.
Sea fan, colony of coral animals called polyps (genus Gorgonia) common to shallow, warm waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Sea gull See: Gull.
Sea Islands, chain of more than 100 islands off the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.
Sea lily, delicate, deep-sea echinoderm (class Crinoidea) shaped like a plant.
Sea lion, fin-footed seal (family Otariidae) differing from the true seals in having external ears and an almost hairless body.
Sea onion See: Squill.
Sea otter (Enhydra lutris), marine mammal of the weasel family that lives near shores in the North Pacific Ocean.
Sea serpent, in myths and legends from many parts of the world, large, snakelike sea animal.
Sea squirt, any of a group of marine animals (class Ascidiacea), also known as ascidians, that squirt water when squeezed.
Sea urchin, any of a class (Echinoidea) of spiny marine animals related to the starfish and the sand dollar, occurring worldwide.
Seabees (from CB, Construction Battalion), members of the U.S.
Seaborg, Glenn Theodore (1912– ), U.S. physicist who shared the 1951 Nobel Prize for physics with E.M.
Seahorse, small marine fish of the Syngnathidae family (genus Hippocampus) found mostly in tropical waters, the head and forepart of which strongly resemble the head and neck of a horse.
Seal, stamping device with an inscription or emblem in relief or cut into its surface, used to make impressions in wax, paper, or other materials, for certification or authentication of documents. “Seal” also refers to the impression made, as well as to the proprietary design itself.
Seal, fin-footed mammal of the order Pinnipedia, which includes both the sea lions (family Otariidae) and the true seals (Phocidae).
Sealing wax, wax once used for sealing letters and still used for taking impressions from seals and for sealing bottles.
Sealyham terrier, short-legged dog originally bred in 19th-century Wales for hunting small burrowing animals.
Seaman, Elizabeth Cochrane See: Bly, Nellie.
Search warrant, in law, court order issued to give law officers the authority to enter and search private premises for evidence, persons, contraband goods, or illegal equipment, such as counterfeiting machinery. “Unreasonable searches and seizures” are forbidden in the Fourth Amendment to the U.S.
Sears, Roebuck and Company, large U.S. retail firm.
Sears Tower, in Chicago, Ill., tallest building (1,454 ft/443 m) in the world.
Seashore, land at the edge of a sea, alternately submerged and exposed by the tides.
Season, one of several divisions of the year, characterized by cyclical changes in the predominant weather pattern.
SEATO See: Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
Seattle (pop. 519,600), largest city in Washington, situated on hills between Elliott Bay (Puget Sound) and Lake Washington; seat of King County.
Seaweed, algae found around coasts from the shore to fairly deep water.
Sebastian, Saint (d.
Sebastopol See: Sevastopol.
Secession, in U.S. history, withdrawal of the Southern states from the Federal Union, 1860–1.
Second, measurement of time and angles in the metric system.
Secret Service, United States, branch of the U.S.
Secretariat, U.S. thoroughbred racehorse.
Secretary bird (Sagittarius serpentarius), tall bird of prey of the dry African plains.
Secretion, complex substance produced in certain cells or glands in the body and discharged into or expelled from the body; also, the process of forming and discharging the substance.
Securities Exchange Act, U.S. law passed in 1934.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), independent agency of the U.S. government set up in 1934 to protect investors in securities (stocks and bonds).
Security Council See: United Nations.
Sedative, any of several drugs that reduce anxiety and induce relaxation without causing sleep.
Seddon, James Alexander (1815–80), U.S. politician, Confederate secretary of war (1862–65).
Sedge, any of afamily (Cyperaceae) of grasslike plants found in damp places worldwide in temperate regions.
Sedimentary rock, one of three main rock classes of the earth's crust; the others are igneous rock and metamorphic rock.
Sedition, incitement of the violent overthrow of the government.
Sedum, genus of succulent plants of the Crassulaceae family.
See, Holy See: Pope.
Seed, mature reproductive body of angiosperms and gymnosperms (seed-bearing plants). It also represents a resting stage that enables plants to survive through unfavorable conditions. Seeds develop from the fertilized ovule. Each seed is covered with a tough coat called a testa, and contains a young plant or embryo. In most seeds three main regions of embryo can be recognized: a radicle, which give…
Seeger, Alan (1888–1916), U.S. poet.
Seeger, Pete (1919– ), U.S. folksinger and conservation activist.
Seeing Eye dog, animal trained to guide the blind.
Segal, George (1924– ), U.S. sculptor.
Sego lily, one of the mariposa lilies (Calochortus nuttallii) native to the dry areas of western North America.
Segovia, Andrés (1893–1987), Spanish classical guitarist, most celebrated of modern players.
Segregation, separation of people according to race, religion, or ethnic origin. Custom or law may restrict the group's place of residence, use of public facilities and institutions, employment, movement, ownership of property, marriage, and the exercise of citizenship. Segregation has occurred throughout history and in most multiracial societies, especially those in which one group has sei…
Seiche, standing wave that occurs in a lake, bay, or similar basin.
Seifert, Jaroslav (1901–85), Czechoslovakian poet who was awarded the 1984 Nobel Prize for literature.
Seigneurial system, feudal system of landholding practiced in France and in the French colonies in eastern Canada.
Seine River, France's principal waterway.
Seismograph, instrument used to detect and record seismic waves caused by earthquakes, nuclear explosions, etc.; the record it produces is a seismogram.
Seismology, branch of geophysics concerned with the study of earthquakes, seismic waves and their propagation through the earth's interior.
Selassie, Haile See: Haile Selassie.
Selective Service System See: Draft, military.
Selene, in Greek mythology, goddess of the moon, called Luna in Roman mythology.
Selenium, chemical element, symbol Se; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Seleucid dynasty (312–64 B.C.), dynasty in southwestern Asia, founded by Seleucus I (c.358–354 B.C.–218 B.C.).
Seljuks, members of the ruling family of Ouz Turkmen tribes.
Selkirk Mountains, subdivision of the Columbia Mountains and considered part of the Rocky Mountain system.
Selye, Hans (1907–82), Austrian-born Canadian physician best known for his work on the physiological effects of environmental stress, which he suggested might cause certain diseases.
Semantics, study of meaning, concerned both with understanding the relationship of words and symbols to the ideas or objects that they represent and with tracing the histories of meanings and changes that have taken place in them.
Semaphore, system of visual signaling using flags or lights to represent letters and numbers.
Semiconductor, solid with an electrical conductivity that lies between the high conductivity of metals and the low conductivity of insulators.
Seminole, last Native American tribe to make peace with the U.S. government.
Semiramis, mythical Assyrian queen who supposedly founded the city of Babylon.
Semites, in the Old Testament, the “sons of Shem” (who was the son of Noah).
Semitic languages, group of the Hamito-Semitic language family found in the Near East and North Africa.
Semmelweis, Ignaz Philipp (1818–65), Hungarian obstetrician.
Senate, one of the two lawmaking bodies in the United States.
Sendak, Maurice (1928– ), U.S. illustrator and author of children's books whose inventive renderings both delight and startle.
Seneca, Native American tribe (O-non-dowanagh, “people of the great hill”) of western New York and eastern Ohio, once the largest nation of the Iroquois League (5 tribes that banded together in the 1400s).
Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (4 B.C.?–A.D.65), Roman statesman, philosopher, and writer.
Senefelder, Alois (1771–1834), German lithographer.
Senegal, westernmost country in Africa, formerly part of French West Africa. Bordering on the Atlantic Ocean, Senegal is flanked on the north by Mauritania, on the east by Mali, and on the south by Guinea. The small independent country of Gambia cuts deeply into southern Senegal from the Atlantic coast, forming a long, narrow enclave along the Gambia River. Senegal has an area of 75,955 sq mi (196…
Senghor, Léopold Sédar (1906– ), Senegalese statesman and poet, Senegal's first president (1960–80), and first black member of the French academy (1984).
Senility, general mental and physical deterioration often (but not always) seen in the elderly.
Senna (Cassia marilandica), perennial plant of which the leaves are used for medicinal purposes.
Sennacherib (d.681 B.C.; r.704–681 B.C.), Assyrian king who succeeded his father, Sargon II.
Sennett, Mack (1884–1960), Canadian-born U.S. silent movie director-producer, a pioneer of slapstick humor on the screen.
Senses, media through which stimuli in the environment of an organism act on the organism (external senses); also, the internal senses, which report on the the internal state of the organism (through thirst, hunger, pain, etc.).
Sensitive plant, small shrub (Mimosa pudica) of the pea family.
Sensitivity training, technique using group discussion and interaction intended to increase one's awareness of self and others and how one behaves with others. Sensitivity training takes many forms and goes by many names: encounter group, T-group, human relations, and group dynamics training. The group has 8–20 participants. The leader, who is trained in psychotherapy, establishes a …
Seoul (pop. 10,612,600), or Kyongsong, capital, largest city, and industrial and cultural center of South Korea, on the Han River, 25 mi (40 km) east of Inchon, its seaport.
Separation of powers, political theory developed by Montesquieu from his studies of the British constitution, arguing that the arbitrary exercise of government power should be avoided by dividing it between distinct departments: the executive, legislature, and judiciary. This was a basic principle of the Founding Fathers in producing the U.S. Constitution; legislative powers were vested in Congres…
Separatists, in religion, English Christian congregations that sought independence from the state and Established Church, beginning in 1580 with the Norwich Brownists.
Sepoy Rebellion, or Indian Mutiny, mutiny of Sepoys (Hindi, “troops”) in the Bengal Army of the East India Company.
Septicemia See: Blood poisoning.
Septuagint, oldest Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, probably from an older source than any now extant.
Sequoia, genus including the two largest trees, the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), both found only in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.
Sequoia National Park, park in south-central California (administered with the adjacent Kings Canyon National Park), established in 1890 to preserve the groves of giant sequoia.
Sequoyah (c.1770–1843), Cherokee silversmith who devised an alphabet whose 85 characters represented every sound in the Cherokee language, enabling thousands of Cherokee to read and write.
Serapis, Egyptian god, worshipped also in Greece and Rome.
Serbia, Balkan state.
Serf, medieval peasant generally bound to the land.
Sergeant at arms, officer who preserves order in a legislative, judicial, or social organization.
Series, in mathematics, sum of a sequence of terms (numbers or algebraic expressions).
Serkin, Rudolf (1903–91), Bohemian-born U.S. pianist.
Sermon on the Mount See: Beatitudes; Golden rule.
Serpentine, hydrous magnesium silicate mineral, Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4, that occurs in 2 forms: chrisotile, the fibrous variety which is the primary source of asbestos, and antigorite, the flaky variety.
Serra, Junípero (1713–84), Spanish Franciscan missionary who founded 9 of California's 21 missions.