Schopenhauer, Arthur (1788–1860), German philosopher, noted for his doctrine of the will. In The World as Will and Idea (1819), his main work, he argued that will is the ultimate reality, but advocated the negation of will to avoid suffering. He encouraged the contemplation of philosophy and the arts as a haven of relief from the insatiable strivings of will. Schopenhauer's ideas influenced Friedrich Nietzsche and modern existentialism.
See also: Philosophy.