Saxony, state in eastern Germany. Saxony was established as a duchy in the late 9th century. Its size and boundaries shifted as it was broken up and then reestablished as Electoral Saxony (1356). From 1697 to 1763 the elector of Saxony was also king of Poland; during this time the state and its capital city of Dresden were an important center of culture. Saxony was made a kingdom by Napoleon I (1816), but upon his defeat half of its lands became part of Prussia. After World War II Saxony became part of East Germany but was abolished as a political unit by the Communists. In 1990, with the reunification of Germany, Saxony was reestablished as a state.