Child welfare, any of various programs, services and, institutions designed to administer to the well-being of children.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Children's literature to Clumber spaniel
Children's literature See: Literature for children.
Chile, country on the Pacific coast of South America, stretching 2,650 mi (1,643 km) from its northern borders with Peru and Bolivia to Cape Horn at the tip of the continent. Chile is narrow, sandwiched between the Pacific Ocean to the west and Argentina to the east; the average distance across the country is only 110 mi (68 km). The Andes Mountains run along the eastern length of the country, and…
Chillicothe (pop. 21,923), industrial city and agricultural trade center in south central Ohio on the Scioto River and Paint Creek, seat of Ross County.
Chimborazo, inactive volcanic mountain in the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes, located in central Ecuador about 120 mi (193 km) from the Pacific Coast.
Chimera, in Greek mythology, fire-breathing female monster with a lion's head, goat's body, and serpent's tail.
Chimpanzee, black-haired ape (genus Pan) native to central and west Africa.
Chimu, ancient Indian culture of coastal northern Peru, developed c.1200.
China, officially the People's Republic of China, world's most populous country and the third-largest in area. Located in the heart of Asia, China is bordered by the Russian Federation and Mongolia to the north; by North Korea and the Pacific Ocean (East China Sea and South China Sea) to the east; by Vietnam, Laos, Burma, Nepal, and India and Pakistan to the south; and by Afghanistan…
China Sea, western part of the Pacific Ocean, bordering the east coast of China.
Chinch bug (Blissus leucopterus), small insect found in the United States, Canada, Central America, and the West Indies.
Chinchilla, rodent (genus Chinchilla) noted for its soft gray fur.
Chinese, major language of the Sino-Tibetan family, with more native speakers (over 800 million) than any other language in the world.
Chinese cabbage, common generic name for pak-choi, pe-tsiao, and wong bok, cabbagelike vegetables of the mustard family with wide, thick leaves on a celerylike stalk used raw in salads and cooked in casseroles and Chinese-style dishes.
Chinese Exclusion Acts, legislation limiting immigration of Orientals to the United States.
Chinese-Japanese Wars, 2 wars between China and Japan (1894–95 and 1937–45).
Chinese literature, among the world's oldest and greatest, Chinese literary works can be traced back almost 3,000 years. Literature was not considered a separate art form and all cultured people were expected to write with style. As a result, literary topics include history, politics, philosophy, religion, and science. Historically, government service was the most prestigious vocation in Ch…
Chinook, Native American tribe of the Pacific Northwest.
Chinook, warm, dry, westerly wind occurring in winter and spring on the Rocky Mountain eastern slopes.
Chipmunk, any of various small, striped ground-living rodents (genera Tamias and Eutamias) of the squirrel family.
Chippendale, Thomas (1718–79), English cabinetmaker whose elegant, individual style blended aspects of Gothic, Rococo, and Chinoiserie.
Chippewa, or Ojibwa, one of the largest Algonquian-speaking tribes of Native Americans, traditionally living in woodland areas around Lakes Superior and Huron, and to the west.
Chirac, Jacques (1932– ), French political leader, president of the republic since 1995.
Chirico, Giorgio de (1888–1978), Greek-born Italian painter who founded “metaphysical painting” and influenced surrealism.
Chiron, in Greek mythology, wisest centaur, famous for his knowledge of healing.
Chiropractic, medical therapy based on the theory that disease results from misalignment of the vertebrae, which causes nerve malfunction.
Chisholm, Shirley (1924– ), first black woman to serve in the U.S.
Chisholm Trail, 19th-century route (c.1866–86) for cattle drives between Texas and Kansas, named after the scout and trader Jesse Chisholm.
Chiton, any of an order (Polyplacophora) of primitive mollusks with shells of light overlapping plates and a muscular foot that clings to rocks.
Chivalry, knightly code of conduct in medieval Europe combining Christian and military ideals of bravery, piety, honor, loyalty, and sacrifice, virtues valued by the Crusaders.
Chive, perennial plant (Allium schoenoprasum) of the lily family, of the same genus as the onion.
Chlamydia, infectious sexually transmitted disease, caused by various strains of bacteria.
Chloride, chemical compound of chlorine with another element or radical.
Chlorine, chemical element, symbol Cl; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, dense, colorless, volatile liquid (CHCI3) produced by chlorination of ethanol or acetone.
Chlorophyll, green pigment of plants that gives them their color and traps and stores the energy of sunlight required for photosynthesis.
Chocolate, confection made from cacao beans, used to make candy and beverages.
Choctaw, Native American tribe traditionally living in what is now southeast Mississippi, speaking a Muskogean language of the Hokan-Siouan family.
Cholera, acute infectious disease involving the small intestine, characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, muscular cramps, and severe loss of body fluid.
Cholesterol, basic component of fats or lipids, a steroid found in nearly all tissues.
Chomsky, Noam (1928– ), U.S. linguist that revolutionized the study of language structure with his theory of generative grammar, first outlined in Syntactic Structures (1957).
Chongqing (pop. 2,980,000), Chungking, or Ch'ung-ch'ing, city in Sichuan province, southwest China, on the Jialing and Yangtze rivers.
Chopin, Frédéric François (1810–49), Polish composer and pianist.
Choral music, unaccompanied choral music sung in monasteries during the early Christian era, known as plainsong.
Chorale, type of hymn tune developed in Germany during the Reformation.
Chordate, animal possessing a primitive backbone-like structure (notochord) at some stage in its development.
Chorea, disease of the central nervous system causing abnormal, involuntary movements of the limbs, body, and face.
Chorus, in ancient classical Greek drama, group of actors who commented upon the action.
Chou En-lai (1898–1976), first prime minister of the People's Republic of China, 1949–76.
Chouteau, family of fur traders who helped to open up the Middle West. (René) Auguste Chouteau (1749–1829) co-founded with Pierre Laclède the trading past that became St.
Chow chow, breed of nonsporting dog believed to have come from China, with a thick, soft coat, and a unique blue-black tongue.
Chrétien de Troyes (1135–83), French poet who wrote romances rooted in Arthurian legend.
Christ of the Andes, statue of Christ created by Mateo Alonzo, in Uspallata Pass on the Argentine-Chile border in the Andes Mountains.
Christ, Jesus See: Jesus Christ.
Christchurch (pop. 312,800), New Zealand's third largest city, located on South Island near the east coast.
Christian See: Christianity.
Christian, Charlie (1919–42), influential jazz guitarist who pioneered the use of electrically amplified instruments.
Christian IV (1577–1648), king of Denmark and Norway 1588–1648, longest reigning Danish monarch.
Christian IX (1818–1906), king of Denmark 1863–1906.
Christian Science, religion based on belief in the power of Christian faith to heal sickness.
Christian X (1870–1947), king of Denmark (1912–47), king of Iceland (1912–44), symbol of Danish resistance to German occupation during World War II.
The entire structure of the Church was shaken by this dissension, and abuses such as simony and the sale of indulgences also cried out for reform. In the 14th century reform was advocated by John Wycliffe in England and Jan Hus in Czechoslovakia. The Reformation of the 16th century was led by Martin Luther, who denied the supreme authority of the pope and rejected all but 2 of the 7 sacraments, Ba…
Christie, Dame Agatha (1891–1976), British writer of popular detective novels and plays.
Christmas (Christ's Mass), annual Christian festival observed on Dec. 25 to commemorate the birth of Jesus Christ.
Christmas Island See: Kiritimati Atoll.
Christmas Tree See: Christmas.
Christophe, Henri (1767–1820), king of North Haiti.
Christopher, Saint (3rd century A.D.), Christian martyr and patron of travelers.
Christus, Petrus (fl. c.1442–73), Flemish painter, early Netherlandish school.
Christy, Edwin P. (1815–62), U.S. actor who organized the successful Christy Minstrels troupe at Buffalo, N.
Chrome See: Chromium.
Chromic acid, common name for chromium trioxide (H2CrO4), an industrial compound used in chromium plating and the manufacture of fire resistant chemicals.
Chromium, chemical element, symbol Cr; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Chromosome, threadlike body in the cell nucleus, composed of genes, which carry genetic information responsible for the inherited characteristic of all organisms. Chromosomes consist of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a sequence of nucleotides composed of 4 different bases, allowing over 500 million alternatives. The basic proteins are found in a complex with DNA in the cells of human organs and tiss…
Chronicles, 2 Old Testament books summarizing Jewish history from Adam through the Babylonian Captivity.
Chronometer, extremely accurate clock, used especially in navigation.
Chrysalis, pupa of certain insects, especially butterflies and moths at the state between caterpillar or larva and fully developed imago (winged adult).
Chrysanthemum, genus of popular flowering annual or perennial herbaceous plants of the daisy family (Compositae).
Chrysler, Walter Percy (1875–1940), U.S. industrialist who produced the first Chrysler car (1924) and established the Chrysler Corporation (1925), which became a major auto producer in the United States.
Chrysostom, Saint John (c.347–407 A.D.), Greek Father and Doctor of the Church.
Chu Teh (1886–1976), Chinese Communist leader.
Chub, any of several small, freshwater carp (family Cyprinidae) found in flowing waters, common to Europe and North America.
Chuckwalla (Sauromalus obesus), lizard of the North American desert.
Church of Christ See: Churches of Christ.
Church of Christ, Scientist See: Christian Science.
Church of England, national church of England and parent church of the Anglican Communion.
Church, Frederick Edwin (1826–1900), U.S. landscape painter noted for his portrayal of light on large canvases.
Church of God in Christ, large Pentecostal denomination.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints See: Mormons.
Church of the Nazarene, Protestant evangelical denomination.
Church and state, phrase that refers to the relations between organized religion and organized government.
Churches of Christ, evangelical Protestant Christian body that teaches strict adherence to principles and practices set forth in the New Testament.
Churches of God, group of U.S.
Churchill Downs See: Kentucky; Kentucky Derby; Louisville.
Churchill, Jennie Jerome See: Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer.
Churchill, John See: Marlborough, Duke of.
Churchill River, formerly Hamilton River, river rising in Ashuanipi Lake in southwestern Labrador and flowing about 600 mi (970 km) through Newfoundland in eastern Canada to Lake Melville on the Atlantic Ocean.
Churchill, Sir Winston Leonard Spencer (1874–1965), British statesman, soldier, and writer. The son of Lord Randolph Churchill and his U.S. wife, Jennie Jerome, he was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. He fought in India (1897), the Sudan (1898), and South Africa. A Conservative member of Parliament (1900), he changed to the Liberal party in 1905 and became first lord of the admiralty by 19…
Churriguera, José Benito (1665–1725), Spanish architect and sculptor who gave his name to the Spanish Baroque style featuring extravagant design, Churrigueresque (1650–1740).
CIA See: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Ciardi, John (1916–86), U.S. poet, translator, and teacher.
Cibber, Colley (1671–1757), English actor-manager and dramatist who introduced sentimental comedy to the theater.
Cibola, Seven Cities of, golden cities reported in the North American Southwest in the 16th century.
Cicada, large insect (order Homoptera) known for its monotonous whining song produced by the rapidly vibrating, drumlike membranes on the male's abdomen (the female is mute).
Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106–43 B.C.), Roman orator, statesman, and philosopher.
Cid, El (Rodrigo Díaz de Bivar; 1040?–99), Spanish soldier and hero.
Cilia, hairlike projections, often part of a fringe, that provide locomotion for 1-celled organisms, and move fluid within higher forms of life.
Ciliate See: Protozoan.
Cimabue, Giovanni (Cenni di Pepo or Peppi; c.1240-c.1302), Italian painter.
Cimarosa, Domenico (1749–1801), prolific Italian composer famous for his comic operas, notably Il Matrimonio Segreto (“The Secret Marriage”; 1792).
Cimmerians, ancient nomads of the Crimea and Asia Minor.
Cimon (c.507-c.449 B.C.), Athenian statesman and military leader in the Greco-Persian Wars.
Cinchona, or chinchona, genus of evergreen tree of South and Central America, cultivated for its bark, which yields quinine and other antimalarial alkaloids.
Cincinnati (pop. 364,300), city in southwest Ohio, on a height overlooking the Ohio River.
Cincinnatus, Lucius Quinctius (c.519-c.439 B.C.), statesman and Roman patriotic hero.
Cinema See: Motion pictures.
Cinnabar, bright-red mercuric sulfide mineral (HgS), an important source of mercury and used in the pigment vermillion.
Cinnamon (genus Cinnamomum), tree or shrub of the laurel family.
Cinquefoil, low-growing plant (genus Potentilla) of the rose family, named for its 5-fingered leaves.
CIO See: Congress of Industrial Organizations.
Circadian rhythm See: Biological clock.
Circe, in Greek mythology, daughter of Helios (the Sun), enchantress who transformed Odysseus' men into swine; Odysseus himself escaped her spell.
Circle, closed plane curve every point of which is at equal distance from a fixed point (center).
Circuit breaker, electric device, like afuse, that will automatically interrupt an electrical circuit (by separating the contacts) when the current exceeds a desired value.
Circuit, electric See: Electric circuit.
Circuit rider, itinerant preacher of the Methodist church who visited scattered communities to conduct services.
Circulation See: Circulatory system.
Circulatory system, system of organs that carries blood throughout the body.
Circumcision, removal of the foreskin covering the glans of the penis, as a religious requirement (among Jews and Muslims) or as a surgical measure for sanitary reasons.
Circumference See: Circle.
Circumstantial evidence See: Evidence.
Circus, form of entertainment featuring trained animals and performances by acrobats, trapeze artists, horseback riders, and clowns, presented within a circular enclosure.
Cirrhosis, chronic disease of the liver marked by progressive destruction and regeneration of liver cells and increased connective tissue (scar) formation.
Cirrus See: Cloud.
Cisneros, Henry Gabriel (1947– ), first Hispanic mayor of a major U.S. city.
Cistercians, Roman Catholic monastic order.
Citadel, fortress protecting or dominating a town.
Cities of refuge, 6 cities of ancient Palestine.
Citizens band radio (CB), radio with a short range.
Citizenship, legal relationship between an individual and the country of nationality, usually acquired by birth or naturalization.
Citizenship Day, day that honors citizens of voting age and naturalized foreign-born citizens of the United States, Sept. 17 (anniversary of the signing of the U.S.
Citrange, hybrid orange produced by crossing the sweet orange and the trifoliate orange.
Citric acid, tricarboxylic acid (C6H8O7) derived from lemons and similar fruits or obtained by fermentation of carbohydrates; used as a flavoring and to condition water.
Citrin, one of a group of chemicals known as flavinoids.
Citron, (Citrus medica), fruit tree in the citrus family (Rutaceae); also its fruit.
Citrus, genus of tropical trees of the rue family, providing such edible fruits as the orange, lemon, citron, grapefruit, lime, tangerine, and shaddock, all of which are rich in vitamin C, sugars, and citric acid.
City, large center of population, often distinguished from a town or village by the diversity of its economic and cultural activities; also, a center officially designated as a city for purposes of local government.
City government, government that manages affairs for cities and various other communities.
City planning, planning for the growth of a city or town, taking into consideration the economic, physical, social, and aesthetic needs of its populace and government. Examples of such planning range from the grid-iron organization of ancient Roman cities to the grandiose planning of the Renaissance, usually intended to glorify a ruler or to strengthen his military position; to the piecemeal devel…
City-state, independent political community (particularly in ancient Greece) made up of a city and its surrounding countryside, from which it draws food and labor.
Ciudad Bolívar (pop. 249,600), commercial center and port of eastern Venezuela, located on the Orinoco River.
Civet, weasel-like carnivorous mammal of the family Viverridae, found in Africa and South Asia.
Civics, study of the rights and duties of citizenship.
Civil Air Patrol (CAP), voluntary civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force.
Civil code See: Code Napoléon.
Civil defense, nonmilitary measures taken to protect a nation's civilian population and its resources in case of enemy attack.
Civil disobedience, form of political action involving intentional violation of the law in order to force concessions from a government or to draw attention to alleged injustices.
Civil law, body of law based on Roman law, dealing with private rights claims between individuals, as opposed to criminal law (offenses against the state). After the fall of the Roman Empire, the customs of the ruling tribes developed into customary law throughout most of continental Europe, including England. Roman law was rediscovered in the 12th century, and European jurists began to codify the…
Civil liberties See: Civil rights.
Civil rights, rights and privileges enjoyed by citizens. A distinction is sometimes made between civil rights and civil liberties: Civil rights must be granted by the government (for example, the right to vote), while civil liberties are inalienable individual freedoms the government may be prohibited from restraining. In the United States “civil rights” also includes the rights of i…
Civil Rights Act of 1866 See: Reconstruction.
Civil Rights, Commission on, independent U.S. government agency whose role is to advance the cause of equal opportunity, established 1957.
Civil service, body of civilian (non-military) employees of a government, excluding elected officials.
Civil War, U.S. (1861–65), conflict between 11 Southern states (Confederate States of America) and the U.S. federal government (Union). Because the 11 states had attempted to secede from the Union, in the North the conflict was officially called the War of the Rebellion. Since the war was a sectional struggle, North against South, it is sometimes also known as the War Between the States. Th…
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), agency founded in 1933 by the U.S.
Civilization (Latin civis, “citizen of a city”), stage of societal development in which complex economic, social, and governmental systems arise.
Civitan International, service organization of business and professional men and women, striving to promote good citizenship, locally, nationally, and internationally.
Claiborne's Rebellion, outbreak of conflict in colonial United States caused by the refusal of William Claiborne, a Virginia fur trader, to accept the authority of Leonard Calvert, governor of Maryland.
Clair, René (René Chomette; 1898–1981), French film director, producer, and writer, especially of screen comedies.
Clam, name given to many edible marine bivalve mollusks that live in sand or mud, including the jacknife clam, the quahog or cherrystone clam, and the pismo clam; also refers to some freshwater bivalves.
Clan, social group claiming descent from a common ancestor.
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st earl of (1609–74), English statesman and historian.
Clarinet, single-reed woodwind instrument comprising a cylindrical tube (usually wooden) with a flared bell and tapered mouthpiece, played vertically.
Clark, Abraham (1726–94), political leader during the American Revolutionary War, member of the 1776 Continental Congress, and a New Jersey signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Clark, (Charles) Joseph (1939– ), Canadian prime minister (1979–80).
Clark, George Rogers (1752–1818), U.S. frontiersman and Revolutionary War general who led the campaign against the British in the Northwest Territory.
Clark, Kenneth Bancroft (1914– ), U.S. psychologist whose 1950 report on school segregation was cited in the Supreme Court's 1954 ruling against segregated public schools.
Clark, Mark Wayne (1896–1984), U.S. general, commander of Allied ground forces in North Africa and Italy in World War II and commander of UN operations in the Korean War (1952–53).
Clark, Ramsey (1927– ), U.S. lawyer and politician.
Clark, Tom Campbell (1899–1977), U.S. jurist and lawyer, Attorney General under President Harry S.
Clark, William (1770–1838), U.S. explorer, a leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804–6, and brother of George Rogers Clark.
Clarke, Arthur C(harles) (1917– ), British science fiction and science writer.
Class, level of social stratification (e.g., upper, middle, and lower class).
Class action, lawsuit in which 1 or more persons represents a group (class) of persons having similar claims.
Classical music, or art music, music composed by individuals and written for instruments, for voices, or for combinations of voices and instruments.
Classicism, in painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, and music, the emulation of classical antiquity, emphasizing harmony, order, and clarity of form, rather than subjectivity, heightened emotion, and the uncanny.
Classification, in biology, systematic arrangement of the world's organisms into categories based on their characteristics.
Claude Lorrain (Claude Gelée; 1600–82), a founder of French romantic landscape painting who lived and worked mostly in Rome.
Claudel, Paul (1868–1955), French dramatist, poet, and diplomat.
Claudius, name of 2 Roman emperors.
Clausewitz, Karl von (1780–1831), Prussian general, strategist, and military historian.
Clausius, Rudolf Julius Emmanuel (1822–88), German theoretical physicist.
Clavichord, keyboard musical instrument popular in the 16th to 18th centuries.
Clay, 1 of 3 main types of earth, found in layers under the earth's crust and often at river mouths.
Clay, Cassius See: Ali, Muhammad.
Clay, Cassius Marcellus (1810–1903), U.S. abolitionist, politician, and statesman.
Clay, Henry (1777–1852), U.S. statesman.
Clay, Lucius DuBignon (1897–1978), U.S. general assigned to govern the U.S. zone of West Germany (1947–49).
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, agreement signed by the United States and Great Britain in 1850, giving the 2 countries an equal role in protecting a canal to be built through Central America, the 2 countries agreeing to maintain the neutrality of the canal and the land on either side of it.
Clayton, John Middleton (1796–1856), politician who served 3 terms as U.S. senator from Delaware.
Clearinghouse, institution or system for exchanging checks among banks for the purpose of collection.
Cleary, Beverly (1916– ), U.S. author of humorous and realistic children's books.
Cleaver, (Leroy) Eldridge (1935–98), U.S. black militant, a leader of the Black Panther party.
Cleft palate, congenital malformation in which the tissues that form the palate do not unite in the fetus, leaving a longitudinal gap in the upper jaw.
Cleisthenes (6th century B.C.), statesman of ancient Athens who instituted democratic reforms.
Clematis, genus of vines and free-standing plants whose flowers bear 4 sepals but no petals.
Clemenceau, Georges (1841–1929), French statesman and journalist.
Clemens, Samuel Langhorne See: Twain, Mark.
Clement of Alexandria (c.150–215), Titus Flavius Clemens, Greek theologian of the early Christian Church.
Clement I, Saint, or Clement of Rome (d. c.101 A.D.), citizen of Rome, elected pope c.29 A.D.
Clement VII (1478?–1534), pope (1523–34), reigning ineffectively during a difficult time in European political and religious affairs.
Clement VII (1342–94), one of the so-called antipopes.
Clement VIII (1536–1605), pope (1592–1605).
Clemente, Roberto (Walker) (1934–72), Puerto Rican-born U.S. baseball player.
See also: Antony, Marc; Caesar, (Gaius) Julius. …
Cleopatra's needles, 2 large stone pillars called obelisks, originally erected in 1460 B.C. by Thutmose IIΙ before a sun temple at Heliopolis.
Clermont, first steamboat designed by U.S. engineer Robert Fulton.
Cleveland (pop. 502,500), Ohio's largest city, situated on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River. It is a major port and railway center and an important manufacturer of steel, automobile parts, chemicals, paints, plastics, precision machinery, petroleum products, trucks and tractors, machine tools, and electrical products. When the Ohio and Erie Canal was completed in 1832 with Cleve…
Cleveland, (Stephen) Grover (1837–1908), 22nd and 24th president of the United States (1885–89; 1893–97), the only president to have served 2 non-consecutive terms. Cleveland was first Democratic chief executive after 24 years of Republicans. In 1855, Cleveland moved to Buffalo, N.Y., where he worked in a local law office, gaining admittance to the bar in 1859. In 1881, after …
Cliburn, Van (Harvey Lavan Cliburn, Jr; 1934– ), U.S. concert pianist.
Click beetle, long-bodied, short-legged beetle (family Elateridae) that can throw itself over with a “click” if placed on its back.
Cliff dwellers, prehistoric Native American people who built elaborate houses, some with hundreds of rooms, sheltered beneath overhanging cliffs in the southwestern United States.
Clifford, Clark McAdams (1906– ), U.S. lawyer who served as a special adviser to presidents Harry S.
Long after the ancient Greeks, climatologists recognized that many factors besides latitude influence climate, for example, elevation, ocean currents, and variations in atmospheric pressure. In the early 1900s a German meteorologist, Vladimir Köppen, classified the world's climatic zones, combining temperature and rainfall boundaries with vegetation boundaries. He suggested 5 basic r…
Clingman's Dome, highest point in Tennessee, located in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
Clinical psychology, scientific and applied branch of psychology concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with emotional or behavioral disorders.
Clinton, De Witt (1769–1828), U.S. politician who promoted the building of the Erie Canal and the Champlain-Hudson Canal.
Clinton, George (1739–1812), U.S. statesman and soldier, vice president (1805–12) under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
Clinton, Sir Henry (1738–95), British general.
Clinton, William Jefferson (Bill), U.S. president born after World War II, the third-youngest president, and the first to take office post-Cold War. He was also the first Democratic president in 12 years, defeating Republican incumbent President George Bush and Ross Perot, an independent candidate and Texas businessman.Early life. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe IV on Aug. 19, 1946, in H…
Clipper ship, 19th-century sailing ship, the fastest ever built.
Clive, Robert, Baron Clive of Plassey (1725–74), British soldier and administrator, twice governor of Bengal, who established British power in India.
Clock, device to indicate or record the passage of time.
Cloisonné, artistic process by which metal objects are decorated with enamel.
Cloister, courtyard surrounded by vaulted and arcaded passageways supported by columns.
Clone, cell or organism genetically identical to the cell or organism from which it has been derived.
Closed shop, establishment where the employer accepts only members of a specified union as employees and continues to employ them only if they remain union members.
Clothing, one of humanity's most important needs, including the various garments, accessories, and ornaments people throughout the world wear for decoration and protection.
Cloture, or closure, in parliamentary procedure, closing of debate to ensure an immediate vote on a measure before the legislative body.
Cloud, visible collection of water droplets suspended in the atmosphere.
Cloud chamber, Wilson See: Wilson cloud chamber.
Cloud seeding See: Rainmaking.
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum or Eugenia caryophyllata), tropical evergreen tree of the myrtle family; also, its dried, unopened flower.
Clover, familiar small plant (genus Trifolium) that grows wild in lawns and pastures and along paths and roads.
Clovis I (A.D. 466–511), Frankish king (481–511), founder of the Merovingian monarchy.
Clown, comedy figure of the pantomime and circus.
Club moss, or ground pine, primitive plant of the order Lycopodiales with small mosslike leaves, related to ferns.
Clubfoot, deformity in which there is an abnormal relationship of the foot to the ankle; most commonly the foot is turned inward and down.
Clumber spaniel, short, heavy hunting dog originally bred in France but developed in England in the 1800s.
Clementi, Muzio (1752–1832), Italian composer and pianist, known as “the father of the piano.” His compositions include more than 100 sonatas, as well as symphonies and his studies for the piano, Gradus ad Parnassum (1817).