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City planning

City planning, planning for the growth of a city or town, taking into consideration the economic, physical, social, and aesthetic needs of its populace and government. Examples of such planning range from the grid-iron organization of ancient Roman cities to the grandiose planning of the Renaissance, usually intended to glorify a ruler or to strengthen his military position; to the piecemeal development of the Industrial Revolution, chaotic due to the enormous population movement; to Pierre L'Enfant's design for Washington, D.C. (1791) and Frederick L. Olmsted's city park designs. In the United States civic reform movements, already active before the Civil War, instigated legislation to enforce slum clearance and to provide better educational and recreational facilities. Today's city planners, many dealing with housing projects and city-center renewal projects, take into account such factors as existing roads and traffic patterns; availability of sanitation service, police and fire protection, employment; zoning regulations; location of schools, hospitals, and recreational facilities.

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