Choral music, unaccompanied choral music sung in monasteries during the early Christian era, known as plainsong. Choral music without accompaniment continued through the 16th century. The development of instrumental accompaniment in the 17th and 18th centuries culminated in J. S. Bach's orchestrated cantatas and passions and the oratorios of Handel. Beethoven's inclusion of a choir in the finale of his Ninth Symphony (1817–23) marks a turning point in the history of music. Notable among 20th-century choral works are Elgar's Dream of Gerontius (1900) and Stravinsky's Symphony of Psalms (1930).