Céline, Louis-Ferdinand (Louis-Ferdinand Destouches, 1849–1961), French novelist.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Catherine de' Medici to Children's home
Cézanne, Paul (1839–1906), French painter.
Cat's eye, any of several gemstones that, when cut to form a convex surface, resemble the eye of a cat.
Catherine of Aragon (1485–1536), first wife of Henry VIII of England.
Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705), Portuguese wife of King Charles II of England.
Catherine de' Medici (1519–89), daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino; wife of King Henry II of France; and mother of 3 kings of France.
Catherine the Great See: Catherine.
Catherine of Siena, Saint (1347–80), Italian religious and mystic known for her visions, charity, and diplomatic skill.
Cathode ray, stream of electrons that flows from a cathode (negative electrode) to an anode (positive electrode) in a vacuum tube when a potential of 4,000–10,000 volts is applied across them.
Catholic Church, Roman See: Roman Catholic Church.
Catholic Emancipation Act , British law enacted on Apr. 13, 1829, removing most of the civil disabilities imposed on British Roman Catholics from the time of Henry VIII.
Catiline (c.108–62 B.C.), Roman aristocrat who tried to seize power in 63 B.C.
Catkin, reproductive organ of many common trees.
Catlin, George (1796–1872), U.S. artist, noted for his paintings of U.S.
Catnip, or catmint (Nepeta cataria), Eurasian mint naturalized in North America.
Cato, name of 2 Roman statesman.
Catskill Mountains, group of mountains west of the Hudson River in the southeastern region of New York, part of the Appalachian system.
Catt, Carrie Lane Chapman (1859–1947), U.S. feminist, suffragist, and founder of the League of Women Voters.
Cattail, wild plant (genus Typha) that grows in marshes and other wetland areas.
Cattle, large ruminant mammal of the family Bovidae, most of which have been domesticated, including bison, buffalo, yak, zebu, and European cattle.
Cattle tick, brown parasitic insect (Boophilus annulatus) that lives on cattle.
Catton, Bruce (1899–1978), U.S. journalist and Civil War historian.
Catullus, Gaius Valerius (c.84–54 B.C.), Roman lyric poet influenced by Hellenistic Greek poetry.
Caucasia, oil-rich region that straddles the Caucasus Mountains in the southwest of the Russian Federation.
Caucasus, mountain range in the Russian Federation between the Caspian and Black seas, 700 mi (1,127 km) long and up to 120 mi (193 km) wide, including the highest mountain in Europe, Mt.
Caucus, closed party meetings to decide on policy or select candidates for public office.
Cauliflower, (Brassica oleracea), variety of cabbage similar to broccoli, in which the edible portion consists of a large mass of unopened flowers.
Caustic, general name for chemicals that burn or corrode other materials such as metal, plastics, and organic substances.
Cavalry, military force that fights on horseback.
Cavazos, Lauro Fred (1927– ), named secretary of education in 1988, first Mexican American to hold a cabinet post.
Cave, natural hollow or cavern found in rock.
Cavefish, common name of several varieties of small, blind, cave-dwelling fish of the family Amblyopsidae.
Cavell, Edith Louise (1865–1915), British nurse who became a World War I heroine.
Cavendish, Henry (1731–1810), English chemist and physicist who showed hydrogen to be a distinct gas, water to be a compound—not an elementary substance, and the composition of the atmosphere to be constant.
Cavour, Count Camillo Benso of (1810–61), Italian statesman largely responsible for the unification of Italy.
Cavy, any of a number of related South American rodents (family Caviidae), of which the guinea pig is the best known.
Caxton, William (c.1422–91), English printer, trained in Cologne.
Cayenne (pop. 41,100), capital of French Guiana, situated on an island in the Cayenne River.
Cayley, Sir George (1773–1857), British inventor who pioneered the science of aerodynamics.
Cayman, crocodilian of South America, notably of the Amazon basin.
Cayman Islands, British dependency in the Caribbean Sea, about 200 mi (320 km) northwest of Jamaica, consisting of 3 islands: Grand Cayman, Little Cayman, and Cayman Brac.
Cayuga, Native American tribe, member of the Iroquois League.
CB radio See: Citizens band radio.
CD See: Compact disc (CD).
Ceausescu, Nicolae (1918–89), president of Romania from 1967 until 1989, when he was overthrown and executed.
Cebu, densely populated Philippine island with a narrow coastal plain and interior mountains.
Cecilia, Saint, early martyr of the Christian church, in 2nd or 3rd century Rome.
Cedar (genus Cedrus), evergreen, cone-bearing tree with fragrant wood.
Cedar Rapids (pop. 168,767), city in east central Iowa, seat of Linn County.
Celandine (Chelidonium majus), low-growing biennial of the poppy family with yellow flowers that are open for most of the spring and summer.
Celery, biennial vegetable (Apium graveolens) related to parsley and carrots, eaten either raw or cooked.
Celery cabbage See: Chinese cabbage.
Celesta, keyboard musical instrument that looks like a miniature upright piano.
Celibacy, voluntary abstinence from marriage and sexual intercourse.
Cell, in biology, smallest unit that possesses all the essential properties of a living organism: metabolism, reproduction, differentiation, regeneration, and excitability (response to stimulus). A living cell can also be described as having a flow of matter: Chemicals come into the cell; they are broken down or transformed into other chemicals that then leave the cell. There is also a flow of ene…
Cellini, Benvenuto (1500–71), Italian metalsmith, sculptor, and writer.
Cello, or violoncello, second largest instrument of the violin family, with 4 strings and a range starting 2 octaves below middle C.
Cellophane, transparent, nonpenetrable film of cellulose used in packaging, first developed by J.
Celluloid, first commercial synthetic plastic, developed by J.
Cellulose, main constituent of the cell walls of plants.
Celsius scale, system for measuring temperature in which the interval between the freezing point and boiling point of water is divided into 100 equal degrees.
Celts, prehistoric people speaking Indo-European dialects, whose numerous tribes occupied much of Europe between 2000 and 100 B.C.
Cement, most important modern construction material, notably as a constituent of concrete.
Cenozoic Era, third and current geologic era.
Censorship, supervision or control exercised by authority over public communication, conduct, or morals.
Census, enumeration of persons, property, and other items within a community, state, or country.
Centaur, in Greek mythology, a creature with the torso, arms, and head of a man and the body of a horse.
Centennial Exposition, International, world's fair held in Philadelphia from May to Nov. 1876, celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence.
Centipede, long-bodied member of the class Chilopoda, phylum Arthropoda with 2 legs to each of their 15 to 100 segments.
Central African Republic, landlocked country in equatorial Africa, bordered by Chad, Sudan, Zaire, Congo and Cameroon. The republic lies north of the equator and is a rolling plateau at about 2,500 ft (763 m). In the east the Fertit Hills rise to 4,200 ft (1,280 m), and in the northeast the Ouanda-Djale Hills reach 3,750 ft (1,143 m). A dense tropical rainforest covers the southern part of the cou…
Central America, North America southeast of Mexico, land bridge to South America, separating the Pacific Ocean from the Caribbean Sea.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), U.S. government agency established in 1947 by the National Security Act to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate intelligence from other U.S. agencies and to advise the president and the National Security Council on security matters.
Central Park See: New York City.
Central Powers See: World War I.
Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces, forces acting on a body as it moves along a curved path.
Centrifuge, machine for separating mixtures of different densities by rotating them in a container at high speed.
Century plant, any of several desert plants (genus Agave) native to warm climates in the Americas.
Century of Progress Exposition, international exhibition celebrating Chicago's centenary, held on the shores of Lake Michigan, 1933–34.
Cephalopoda, class of predatory mollusks including the cuttlefish, octopus, and squid.
Cephalosporins, group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, most of which are derived from the penicillinlike cephalosporin C that was discovered in sewage in Sardinia.
Cepheid variables, yellow giant stars whose brightness varies regularly with a period of 1 to 50 days.
Ceram See: Indonesia.
Ceramics, materials produced by treating nonmetallic, inorganic substances (originally clay) at high temperatures.
Cerberus, in Greek mythology, huge multiheaded dog, with a mane and tail of snakes, that guarded the entrance to Hades.
Cereal, generic name for annual plants of the grass family, including wheat, rice, corn, barley, sorghum, millet, oats, and rye.
Cerebellum See: Brain.
Cerebral hemorrhage, bleeding from a broken blood vessel in the brain, with damage to or destruction of surrounding tissues.
Cerebral palsy, diverse group of conditions caused by brain damage around the time of birth and resulting in a variable degree of nonprogressive physical and mental handicap.
Cerebrospinal fluid, serum-like fluid produced in the lateral ventricles of the brain; it bathes the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrum See: Brain.
Ceres, in Roman mythology, goddess of grain, agriculture, and the harvest.
Ceres, largest and first discovered (1801) of thousands of asteroids, or minor planets, that orbit the sun between Jupiter and Mars.
Cerium, chemical element, symbol Ce; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Cermet, or ceramal, composite material made from mixed metals and ceramics.
Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de (1547–1616), Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright, a major figure of Spanish literature.
Cesarean section, surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus, performed to deliver a baby.
Cesium, chemical element, symbol Cs; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
CETA (Comprehensive Training and Employment Act of 1973), federally funded system for training unemployed people and providing them with jobs and job- related services.
Cetacean, any of the mammalian order (Cetacea) comprised of whales, porpoises, and dolphins.
Cetewayo, or Cetshwayo (1826–84), fourth and last Zulu king (1873–79).
Ceylon See: Sri Lanka.
Chénier, André Marie de (1762–94), French poet.
Château, French term for castle, often applied to any stately mansion; originally a well-fortified medieval castle with a moat, used for defense rather than residence.
Chabrier, Alexis Emmanuel (1841–94), French composer best remembered for orchestral works such as España (1883) and various piano pieces.
Chad (Republic of), landlocked state in north-central Africa bordered by 6 states, including Libya to the north and the Central African Republic to the south. N'Djamena is the capital. Its northern part extends into the Sahara desert, where the Tibesti highlands rise to 11,000 ft (3,353 m). The southern part consists largely of semiarid steppe with wooded grasslands (savannas) near Lake Cha…
Chadwick, Sir James (1891–1974), English physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in 1932 for his discovery of the neutron.
Chagall, Marc (1887–1985), Russian painter.
Chagres, river in eastern Panama that was dammed during construction of the Panama Canal, thus forming Gatun Lake.
Chaikovsky, Peter Ilich See: Tchaikovsky, Peter Ilich.
Chain reaction See: Nuclear energy.
Chain, Sir Ernst Boris (1906–79), German-born English biochemist who helped develop penicillin for clinical use.
Chair, everyday piece of furniture that in early civilizations was reserved for persons in high authority.
Chalcedony, mineral consisting of microcrystalline silica (silicon dioxide) with a glassy or waxy luster, sometimes translucent.
Chalcocite, sulfide mineral (Cu2S) that is an important ore of copper.
Chalcopyrite, most important copper ore.
Chaldea, name for southern Babylonia after its occupation by the Chaldeans in the 10th century B.C.
Chaliapin, Feodor Ivanovich (1873–1938), Russian operatic bass.
Chalk, soft, white rock composed of calcium carbonate, CaCO3, a type of fine-grained, porous limestone containing the shells of minute marine animals.
Challenger, one of the 4 space shuttles of the NASA space program.
Chamber of Commerce, association of businesspeople set up to improve business conditions and practices, and to protect business interests.
Chamber music, musical composition intended for a small ensemble.
Chamberlain, family name of 3 prominent British statesmen, Joseph Chamberlain (1836–1914) entered Parliament in 1876 as a Liberal.
Chamberlain, Wilt (1936- ), U.S. basketball player.
Chambers, Whittaker (1901–61), U.S. journalist and main witness in perjury trial of State Department official Alger Hiss.
Chameleon, lizard of the family Chamaeleonidae, found in Africa and Madagascar, that is well adapted to living in trees.
Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), goatlike mammal of the family Bovidae found in the mountain forests of Europe and Asia Minor.
Chamomile See: Camomile.
Champagne, historic province in northwestern France, famous for the effervescent sparkling white wines from vineyards between Reims and Epernay.
Champlain, Samuel de (1567–1635), French explorer, first governor of French Canada.
Champollion, Jean François (1790–1832), French linguist and historian.
Champs Élysées See: Paris (city).
Chancellorsville, Battle of, U.S.
Chandler, Raymond Thornton (1888–1959), U.S. detective novelist whose works combine wit and pace with strong characterization, particularly of their hero, Philip Marlowe, a tough but honest private detective.
Chandler, Zachariah (1813–79), U.S. politician, a founder of the Republican Party.
Chandragupta, Maurya (4th century B.C.), Indian emperor c.321–297 B.C., founder of the Maurya dynasty.
Changamire Empire See: Zimbabwe.
Channel bass See: Redfish.
Channel Islands, archipelago totaling 75 sq mi (194 sq km) in area, in the English Channel off northwestern France.
Channel Islands National Park (est. 1980), 8 islands off South California, extending over 150 mi (241 k) in the Pacific Ocean.
Channing, William Ellery (1780–1842), U.S. theologian, writer, and philanthropist, leader of the Unitarian movement in New England.
Chansons de Geste, medieval French epic poems written from the 11th through the 13th centuries.
Chanukah See: Hanukkah.
Chaos, in Greek mythology, first being to be created, represented as a living creature made up of all the world's components.
Chaparral, area of plant growth dominated by shrubs, evergreen oaks (including the mountain mahogany and scrub oak), and the chamiso scrub.
Chapel, place of Christian worship, usually located in a chamber within a church.
Chaplin, Charlie (Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin; 1889–1977), English film actor and director, great comedian of the silent cinema.
Chapman, George, (1559?–1634), English poet and dramatist.
Chapman, John See: Appleseed, Johnny.
Chapultepec, historic hill near Mexico City, site of an Aztec royal residence and religious center in the 14th century.
Char, or brook trout, North American member of the trout family, (genus Salvelinus) prized for its flesh.
Charcoal, form of amorphous carbon produced when wood, peat, bones, cellulose, or other carbonaceous substances are heated with little or no air present.
Charcot, Jean Martin (1825–93), French neurologist whose researches advanced knowledge of hysteria, multiple sclerosis, locomotor ataxia, asthma, and aging.
Chard See: Swiss chard.
Chardin, Jean-Baptiste-Simeon (1699–1779), French painter.
Chardonnet, Hilaire (1839–1924), French chemist, industrialist, and physiologist who did pioneering work on synthetic fiber, developing what later became known as rayon, first shown to the public at the Paris Exposition of 1889.
Charlemagne (Charles the Great; 742?–814), King of the Franks, founder of the Holy Roman Empire.
Charles, name of 7 rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, starting with Charlemagne.
Charles, name of 10 kings of France. Charles I was Charlemagne. Charles II (the Bald; 823–77) reigned as king of the West Franks from 843 and as emperor of the West from 875. Numerous revolts and invasions troubled his reign, culturally the last flowering of the Carolingian renaissance. Charles III (the Simple; 879–929), grandson of Charles II, reigned (893–923). Charles IV (t…
Charles, Stuart kings of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Charles the Great See: Charlemagne.
Charles I (1887–1922), last emperor of Austria and King of Hungary (1916–18).
Charles Martel (A.D. 688–741), Frankish ruler who, as mayor of the palace (chief minister) from 714, ruled in place of the weak Merovingian kings.
Charles, Philip Arthur George (1948– ), Prince of Wales and Duke of Cornwall, heir apparent to the British throne.
Charles, Ray ( Ray Charles Robinson; 1930– ), U.S. singer, composer, and pianist, credited with synthesizing aspects of gospel, blues and country, and jazz to create a new form of music known as soul.
Charleston (pop. 506,875), capital of South Carolina and major regional port.
Charlotte (pop. 1,162,093), largest city in North Carolina, seat of Mecklenburg County.
Charlotte Amalie (pop. 11,800), capital of the U.S.
Charlottestown (pop. 15,800), capital of Prince Edward Island, Canada, on an estuary of the Hillsborough River.
Charlottesville (pop. 131,107), city in Virginia situated in the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains; seat of Albemarle County.
Charon, in Greek mythology, son of Erebus (the belt of darkness between Earth and Hades) and Nyx (night).
Charter Oak, celebrated oak tree in which the Connecticut colonial charter was hidden in 1687 to prevent its surrender to the royal governor of New England.
Chartism, radical and unsuccessful attempt by voteless British laborers to gain economic and social equality, 1838–48.
Chartres (pop. 37,100), historic city in northwestern France, capital of Eure-et-Loire department and commercial center of the Beauce region.
Chartres Cathedral See: Chartres.
Charybdis See: Scylla and Charybdis.
Chase, Salmon Portland (1808–73), U.S. senator (1849–55, 1860–61), governor of Ohio (1855–59), secretary of the treasury (1861–64), and chief justice of the U.S.
Chase, Samuel (1741–1811), U.S.
Chase, William Merritt (1849–1916), U.S. painter and art teacher known for his portraits and still lifes.
Chat, any of several singing birds.
Chateaubriand, François René, Vicomte de (1768–1848), French writer and diplomat, a founder of the Romantic movement in 19th-century French literature.
Chatham, Earl of See: Pitt.
Chattanooga (pop. 162,000), city in southern Tennessee, on the Tennessee River near the Georgia border.
Chattanooga, Battle of See: Civil War, U.S.
Chatteron, Thomas (1752–70), English poet who at the age of 12 wrote poems in pseudomedieval English that he presented as the work of a 15th-century monk, Thomas Rowley.
Chaucer, Geoffrey (c.1340–1400), English poet. His early writing, including an incomplete translation of Le Roman de la Rose, shows strong French influence. In the 1370s, growing familiarity with Boccaccio and Dante influenced The Parliament of Fowls and Troilus and Criseyde, a powerful love poem. His masterpiece was The Canterbury Tales, a 17,000-line poem, in which pilgrims on their way t…
Chauncy, Charles (1705–87), influential American Congregationalist minister, a critic of the Great Awakening religious revivalists.
Chautauqua Movement, U.S. adult education movement that began at Lake Chautauqua, N.Y., in 1874, as a course for Sunday school teachers.
Chavez, Carlos (1899–1978), Mexican composer who founded the Symphony Orchestra of Mexico (1928), which he conducted until 1949.
Chavez, Cesar Estrada (1927– ), Chicano (Mexican-American) labor leader, founder of the United Farm Workers (UFW), an affiliate of the AFL-CIO.
Chayote, climbing vine of the gourd family cultivated chiefly for its pear-shaped, round fruit, which is used in puddings, pies, and salads.
Checkers, or draughts, game played by two people on a board of 64 alternating light and dark squares.
Checks and balances, term that describes the powers of the 3 branches of government: the legislature, which makes laws; the executive, which enforces them; and the judiciary, which interprets them.
Cheese, food made from the milk of cows, sheep, or goats, with a high content of protein, calcium, and vitamins.
Cheetah, tawny-coated, black-spotted cat (Acinonyx jubatus), native to Africa and southwest Asia, the fastest land animal, capable of running at speeds of up to 70 mi (113 k) per hr.
Cheever, John (1912–82), U.S. author.
Cheka, Russian abbreviation of “Extraordinary Commission for Combatting Counter-Revolution, Speculation, Sabotage, and Misuse of Authority,” the secret police set up by the Bolsheviks in 1917 to eliminate their opponents.
Chekhov, Anton Pavlovich (1860–1904), Russian dramatist and short story writer.
Chemical and biological warfare, military use of chemical poisons or disease-causing agents against enemy troops, civilians, animals, and plants.
Chemical bond See: Chemistry; Mineral.
Chemical element See: Element.
Chemical engineering See: Engineering.
Chemical reaction, process whereby 1 substance is changed chemically into another through the formation or destruction of bonds between atoms.
Chemical warfare See: Chemical and biological warfare.
Chemistry, science dealing with the composition of substances and the changes that occur when they react with one another. All chemical changes take place by the linking-up of atoms into molecules, a molecule being the smallest particle of a chemical compound that has that compound's characteristic properties. Chemical reactions may involve elements themselves, elements and compounds, or co…
Chemotherapy, use of nonantibiotic chemical substances to treat disease, most often cancer.
Chennault, Claire Lee (1890–1958), U.S. pilot.
Cheops See: Khufu.
Cherbourg (pop. 28,400), seaport and naval station in France, on the English Channel.
Cherimoya (Annona cherimola), tropical tree native to Peru and Ecuador.
Chernenko, Konstantin Ustinovich (1911–85), leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1984–85).
Cherokees, once the largest Native American tribe in the southeast United States.
Cherry, any of several trees (genus Prunus) best known for their red, fleshy fruits with hard pits.
Cherry laurel (family Rosaceae, genus Prunus), any of various evergreen shrubs native to southeastern Europe and the Orient.
Cherubini, Maria Luigi (1760–1842), Italian composer who spent most of his life in France.
Chesapeake Bay, large inlet of the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States, an important trade route for oceangoing vessels.
Chesapeake Bay retriever, medium-sized breed of water-loving hunting dogs of the sporting group.
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, waterway along the Potomac River between Washington, D.C., and Cumberland, Md.
Chesnutt, Charles Waddell (1858–1932), African-American educator, lawyer, and fiction author.
Chess, sophisticated board game for 2 players probably invented in India in ancient times.
Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of (1694–1773), English politician and author chiefly remembered for his posthumously published Letters to His Son (1774), which offer vivid, amusing insights into the morality of the age.
Chesterton, G(ilbert) K(eith) (1874–1936), English author and critic, noted for his lyrical style and delight in paradox.
Chestnut, any of various deciduous trees (genus Castanea) of the beech family, with edible nuts.
Chevalier, Maurice (1888–1972), French singer and film star.
Chevrolet, Louis (1879–1941), Swiss-born U.S. automobile racer and designer; in 1911 he designed and built (with William C.
Chewing gum, confection made from chicle, other resins and waxes, sugar, and corn syrup.
Cheyenne (pop. 73,142), capital of Wyoming and center of its agriculture.
Cheyenne, North American tribe speaking an Algonquian language.
Chiang Ching-kuo (1910–88), leader of the Nationalist Chinese government on Taiwan (1975–88).
Chiang Kai-shek (1887–1975), Chinese Nationalist leader.
Chibcha, inhabitants of the plateau of Bogota in central Colombia.
Chicago (pop. 2,768,500), third-largest city in the United States, on Lake Michigan in Illinois, hub of the U.S. road, rail, and air systems.
Chicago, University of, private, nondenominational, coeducational institution in Chicago, Ill, incorporated in 1890.
Chicano, person of Mexican-American descent.
Chichén Itzá, archeological remains of a Maya city in Yucatan, Mexico.
Chickadee, any of various common small songbirds of the family Paridae (genus Penthestes or Parus), with dark caps and bibs and white faces.
Chickamauga, Battle of, bloodiest single battle of the U.S.
Chickasaw, Native American tribe speaking a Muskogean language of the Hokan-Sioux grouping.
Chicken, domesticated bird raised for its meat and eggs, originating in northern Asia from the jungle fowl.
Chickenpox, or varicella, contagious disease caused by a virus and affecting mainly children, usually in epidemics.
Chickpea, or garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum), bushy annual legume cultivated from antiquity in southern Europe, India, and the Middle East, and grown for its edible seeds.
Chicle, latex of the sapodilla tree, a tropical American evergreen, and the raw material of chewing gum.
Chicory, blue-flowered perennial herb (Cichorium intybus) of the Composite family, native to the Mediterranean and now grown in the United States.
Chigger, larva of the harvest mite, a small arachnid.
Chihuahua, small terrierlike dog.
Chihuahua (pop. 530,500), capital of the Mexican state of the same name.
Chihuahua, geographically largest state 95,376 sq mi (247,086 sq km) in Mexico, bordering both Texas and New Mexico.
Chilblain, reaction to cold with pain and itching that can lead to the formation of blisters and ulcers.
Child abuse, physical, emotional, or sexual injury caused to a child under age 16 by an adult.
Child labor, employment of children in industrial or agricultural work, a practice common in the United States in the 19th century.
Children's home, or orphanage, place where foundlings and homeless children live.