Indium, a chemical element, symbol Ir; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Inert gas to Jaruzelski, Wojciech
Inert gas See: Noble gas.
Inertia, in physics, tendency of a body to persist in its state of rest or motion.
Inertial guidance, method by which a vehicle is guided without contact with a ground base.
Infant See: Baby.
Infantry, body of soldiers who fight on foot using light weaponry, such as rifles, machine guns, bazookas, mortars, and grenades.
Infection, state or condition in which the body or a part of it is invaded by a pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganism or virus that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces effects that are injurious. Localized infection is usually accompanied by inflammation, but inflammation may occur without infection. The 5 classical symptoms of infection listed by early medical writers are: (…
Infertility, inability or diminished ability to produce offspring. Infertility affects about 15% of couples in the United States and the United Kingdom. Male fertility depends on adequate production of sperm by the testicles, unobstructed transit of sperm through the seminal tract, and satisfactory depositing of it within the vagina. Causes of impaired spermatogenesis include certain enviro…
Infinity (∞), quantity greater than any finite quantity.
Inflation, in economics, decline in the value of money, which implies a general increase in the prices of commodities and services. Deflation means the opposite—generally falling prices, usually accompanied by lower profits and fewer jobs. Times of mild inflation are usually characterized by high employment, with factories producing near their capacities to capture the increased amount of c…
Inflection, in grammar, changes in form that words undergo with each change in grammatical function.
Inflorescence, arrangement of flowers on the stem of a plant. Tulips and anemones, among other plants, carry single flowers at the tops of their stems. Most plants, however, carry their flowers in clusters called inflorescences. This is especially true of those species whose individual flowers are small. The inflorescence is thought to be more attractive to pollinating insects than a single flower…
Influenza, specific acute respiratory disease caused by viruses and characterized by fever, head cold, cough, headache, malaise, and inflamed mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. It usually occurs as an epidemic in the winter. Hemorrhage, bronchitis, pneumonia, and sometimes death occur in severe cases. Acute epidemics occur about every 3 years. Persons at high risk of developing severe dise…
Information Agency, U.S. (USIA), independent, U.S. government agency that conducts international communication, education, cultural, and exchange programs to foster understanding between the citizens of the United States and those of other nations.
Information theory, or communication theory, mathematical discipline that aims to maximize the information that can be conveyed by communications systems and minimize the errors that arise in the course of transmission. The information content of a message is conventionally quantified in terms of bits (binary digits). Each bit represents a simple alternative: in terms of a message, a yes or no; in…
Infrared rays, rays resembling light rays, but undetectable by the human eye.
Inge, William (1913–73), U.S. playwright.
Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique (1780–1867), French neoclassical painter.
Inheritance tax, assessment on property bequeathed by a deceased person to a specific legatee.
Inititive, referendum, and recall, methods by which voters may directly intervene to influence government policy between elections.
Injunction, formal written court order commanding or prohibiting any act.
Ink, liquid or paste used for writing or printing.
Inness, George (1825–94), U.S. landscape painter.
Innocence See: Bluet.
Innocent, name of 13 popes. Saint Innocent I (d.417) was pope from 401. He championed papal supremacy, but failed to prevent the sack of Rome by Alaric in 410. Innocent II (Gregorio Papareschi; d.1143) was pope from 1130. He convened the Second Lateral Council (1139). Innocent III (Giovanni Lotario de'Conti; 1161–1216) was pope from 1198. Under him the medieval papacy reached the sum…
Innsbruck (pop. 118,100), capital of the Austrian Tyrol province, located on the Inn River, at an altitude of 1,880 ft (573 m) between steep Alpine ranges.
Inoculation, introduction of a germ, a poison produced by a germ, or serum into the body to set up the production of antibodies that will subsequently protect the individual from an attack of the disease, rendering the individual immune.
Inouye, Daniel Ken (1924– ), U.S. senator from Hawaii (1962– ).
Input-output analysis, method of studying the relationship between various parts of the economy, developed by U.S. economist Wassily Leontif.
Inquest, formal legal inquiry to ascertain a fact.
Inquisition, medieval agency of the Roman Catholic Church to combat heresy, first made official in 1231 when Pope Gregory IX appointed a commission of Dominicans to investigate heresy among the Albigensians of southern France. It aimed to save the heretic's soul, but a refusal to recant was punished by fines, penance, or imprisonment, and often by confiscation of land by the secular authori…
Insect, member of the class Insecta, phylum Arthropoda, or invertebrate animals with jointed legs. There are about 750,000 known species of insects, and more are being discovered every year. The body of an insect, like that of other arthropods, is covered by a hard, waterproof “shell” that forms an external skeleton to which the muscles are attached. The head bears jaws and other str…
Insecticide, any substance toxic to insects and used to control them in situations where they cause economic damage or endanger the health of humans and their domestic animals. There are 3 main types: stomach insecticides, which are ingested by the insects with their food; contact insecticides, which penetrate the cuticle (exterior covering); and fumigant insecticides, which are inhaled. Stomach i…
Insectivore, order (Insectivora) of small insect-eating mammals, regarded as the most primitive group of placental mammals, having diverged little from the ancestral form.
Insectivorous plant See: Carnivorous plant.
Installment plan, system of credit by which merchandise is paid for over a fixed period of time in installments known as deferred payments.
Instinct, in biology and psychology, behaviors in reaction to external stimuli that have not been consciously learned.
Insulation, inhibiting or limiting the conduction of electricity or heat through the use of specific materials. An electric current or voltage is contained by materials (insulators) that offer a high resistance to current flow, will withstand high voltages without breaking down, and will not deteriorate with age. The mechanical properties desired vary with the application: Cables require flexible …
Insulin, protein hormone manufactured in the pancreas by minute areas of tissue called the islets of Langerhans, and then secreted into the blood, where it controls the digestion of carbohydrates.
Insull, Samuel (1859–1938), English-born U.S. financier.
Insurance, method of financial protection by which one party undertakes to indemnify another against certain forms of loss.
Integrated circuit, combination of interconnected circuit elements and amplifying devices inseparately associated on or within a continuous layer of semiconductor material, called a substrate.
Integration, in U.S. history, right to equal access for people of all races to such facilities as schools, churches, housing, and public accommodations. It became an issue of public importance in the United States after the Civil War and the pasage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution, 1864–70, which declared the African American free and equal, and the Civil Rights Ac…
Intelligence, mental ability, including learning ability, problem-solving ability, and the capacity for abstract thinking.
Intelligence quotient (IQ), index of intelligence determined through a subject's answers to arbitrarily chosen questions. The IQ is merely a standard score that places an individual in reference to the scores of others within his or her age group. Mental age represents the age level corresponding to the score reached on the test. Thus, if a child 10 years old gives a test score appropriate …
Intelligence service, institution of a national government that gathers information; particularly about clandestine activities of other countries or enemies, for the purpose of protecting national security. Such functions were once performed chiefly by foreign ambassadors. Under Elizabeth I, England was among the first Western countries to set up an elaborate intelligence service, privately financ…
Intelligence test See: Intelligence quotient; Testing.
Inter-American conferences See: Pan-American conferences.
Intercontinental ballistic missile See: Guided missile.
Interest, money paid for the use of money loaned.
Interference, in physics, mutual action of waves of any kind upon each other, by which their vibrations and effects are increased, diminished, or neutralized.
Interferometer, any instrument of measurement employing interference effects of waves.
Interferon, class of small soluble proteins produced and released by cells invaded by a virus, that inhibits viral multiplication.
Interior decoration, design and arrangement of decorative elements in a home or public building.
Interior, Department of the, department of the executive branch of the federal government, headed by the secretary of the interior.
Interleukin, generic term for a group of proteins, formed in white blood cells known as leucocytes, that activate the body's immune system.
Internal combustion engine, heat engine in which fuel is burned inside the engine itself. It contrasts with an external combustion engine (such as the steam engine), in which fuel is burned in a separate furnace. By far the most common type of internal-combustion engine is the gasoline engine, which propels practically all automobiles. Another common type is the diesel engine used in trucks and ma…
Internal medicine, medical specialty that focuses on disorders of the internal body structures of adults.
Internal revenue, the income a government takes in from its own sources, such as excise, sales, payroll, estate, income, and gift taxes.
Internal Revenue Service (IRS), agency of the U.S.
International, The, common name of a number of socialist-communist revolutionary organizations. Three of these have had historical significance. The First International, officially the International Working Men's Association, was formed under the leadership of Karl Marx in London in 1864 with the aim of uniting workers of all nations to realize the ideals of the Communist Manifesto. Divisio…
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development See: World Bank.
International code See: Morse code.
International Court of Justice, highest judicial organ of the United Nations, founded in 1946 to provide a peaceful means of settling international disputes according to the principles of international law.
International Criminal Police Organization See: Interpol.
International Date Line, imaginary line that runs down the middle of the Pacific Ocean and mostly follows the 180th meridian.
International language See: Universal language.
International law, body of laws assumed to be binding among nations by virtue of their general acceptance. The beginnings of international law lay in attempts to humanize the conduct of war. The seminal work of Hugo Grotius, On the Law of War and Peace (1625), was one such; he also formulated several important principles, including a legal basis for the sovereignty of states. The works of Grotius …
International relations, relationships between nations, through politics, treaties, military confrontation or cooperation, economics, or culture. Peacetime contact is generally maintained through diplomacy; each nation maintains embassies in other countries it recognizes as nations. Even when states do not maintain mutual embassies, however, they may find it desirable to keep contacts open, often …
International System of Units See: Metric system.
International trade, or world trade, exchange of goods and services between nations. Since the 18th century it has become a vital element in world prosperity, largely because it is thought more profitable for countries to specialize in producing goods in which such factors as natural resources, climatic conditions, availability of raw materials, and a skilled labor force or low labor costs give th…
Interpol, International Criminal Police Organization, a clearinghouse for police information that specializes in the detection of counterfeiting, smuggling, and trafficking in narcotics.
Interstate commerce, in the United States, all commercial transactions that concern more than one state and relate to the national interest.
Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), independent U.S. government agency, the first regulatory commission in U.S. history.
Intestine, in animals, alimentary canal extending from the pylorus of the stomach to the anus. The human intestine is approximately 24 ft (7 m) long and is divided into the small intestine and large intestine, or colon. The small intestine has a total length of approximately 10 ft (3 m). It begins with the duodenum, which receives the food mass from the stomach through the pylorus, bile from the l…
Intolerable Acts, or Coercive Acts, name given by patriots in the American colonies to 5 acts of the British Parliament passed in 1774 to control political and other activities of the colonists.
Intrauterine device See: Birth control.
Introvert, a nontechnical psychological term referring to someone whose thoughts are generally turned inward.
Intrusive rock See: Igneous rock.
Inuit See: Eskimo.
Inverness (pop. 40,000), town in the Highland Region of northern Scotland which serves as the region's administrative and commercial center.
Invertebrate, animal without a backbone.
Investment, in economics, productive employment of resources (capital) or the transformation of savings into active wealth (capital formation); more commonly, use of funds to obtain dividends, for example, from corporate stock or government bonds. Modern industry's large demands for capital funds are met in large measure by employing the savings of innumerable individuals, scattered over va…
Io, in Greek mythology, princess of Argos and mistress of the god Zeus.
Iodine, a chemical element, symbol I; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Ion, atom or group of atoms that has become electrically charged by gain or loss of negatively charged electrons.
Ion microscope, a magnifying instrument capable of magnifying up to 2 million times and with enough clarity to make individual atoms visible.
Ionesco, Eugène (1912–94), Romanian-born French playwright, a leading figure in the so-called theater of the absurd.
Ionian Islands, group of islands off the southwest mainland of Greece, chief of which are Cephalonia, Cerigo, Corfu, Ithaca, Leukas, Paxos, and Zante.
Ionian Sea, arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between southeast Italy and western Greece.
Ionians, ancient Greek people who colonized the west coast of Asia Minor that became known as Ionia (now in Turkey).
Ionization detector See: Smoke detector.
Ionosphere, layer of the atmosphere extending from roughly 50 mi (80 km) to 250 or 300 mi (400 or 480 km) above the earth.
Iowa, midwestern state in the north-central United States; bordered by Minnesota in the north, Wisconsin and Illinois in the east, Missouri in the south, and Nebraska and South Dakota in the west. Iowa is gently rolling plain, sloping toward the southeast. Great glaciers covered Iowa during the Ice Age, leveling hills and filling valleys with rich soil. In the southern portion of the state is a re…
Iowa, Siouan-speaking Native American tribe of North America.
Iphigenia, in Greek mythology, daughter of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon and sister of Orestes.
Iqbal, Sir Muhammad (1873–1938), Indian Muslim poet, philosopher, and politician.
IRA See: Pension.
IRA See: Irish Republican Army.
Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, country in southwest Asia, bordered by Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the Caspian Sea in the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the east, Turkey and Iraq in the west, and the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south. The capital and largest city is Teheran. Most of the country is a high plateau lying between the Elburz and Zagros mountain…
Iran-Contra affair, secret U.S. government effort in 1986 by the Reagan administration to gain the release of U.S. hostages in the Middle East by selling weapons and munitions to the Iranian government.
Iraq, country in southwest Asia, bordered by Turkey in the north, Iran in the east, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in the south, and Jordan and Syria in the west.The capital is Baghdad. Other large cities are Basra and Mosul. Iraq is mountainous in the northeast, but much of the country is composed of low-lying grasslands between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. The lower plain includes the fertile d…
Ireland (Gaelic: Eire), officially the Republic of Ireland, independent country in northwestern Europe, occupying five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The country is bounded on the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea. A land boundary separates it from Northern Ireland (Ulster). The capital is Dublin. Ireland is sometimes called Erin. Ireland can …
Irenaeus, Saint (A.D. 130?–202?), important theologian and leader during the 2nd century A.D.
Iris, any of a genus (Iris) of perennial herbaceous plants with intricate and colorful flowers, found in temperate parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America.
Iris, colored circular part of the eye made of muscle and fiber and surrounding the black pupil.
Irish See: Gaelic.
Irish literature, composite of folk tales, lyric and narrative poetry, novels, short stories and drama from ancient to present-day Ireland.
Irish moss, or carrageen (Chondrus crispus or Gigartina mamillosa), small red seaweed.
Irish Republican Army (IRA), Irish nationalist organization opposed to British rule and committed to the unification of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The IRA evolved from militant remnants of the Irish Volunteers, who planned and fought in the Easter Rebellion (1916). Refusing to accept the separation of Northern Ireland, it became a secret terrorist organization, connected with th…
Irish Sea, arm of the Atlantic, separating Ireland from the island of Great Britain.
Irish setter, sporting dog and popular pet.
Irish terrier, dog that resembles a wirehaired fox terrier.
Irish water spaniel, dog breed from the early 1800's.
Irish wolfhound, hound which is the tallest of all dog breeds.
Iron, a chemical element, symbol Fe; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Iron Age, stage of humankind's material cultural development, following the Stone Age and the Bronze Age, during which iron was generally used for weapons and tools.
Iron Curtain, term for self-imposed isolation of the former USSR and its Eastern European satellite countries, a policy established after World War II.
Iron lung, tank covering the entire body except the head, in which air pressure is increased and decreased to provide artificial respiration.
Iron ore See: Iron and Steel.
Iron pyrite See: Pyrite.
Iron and Steel, materials essential to all modern industrialized economies. Iron is a common element throughout nature and is even an important component of our blood. This discussion focuses on iron as a useful metal. The highest natural concentrations of iron are found in meteors. A common element in the earth's crust, iron is combined in varying concentrations with oxygen, carbon, sulfur…
Ironclad See: Monitor and Merrimack.
Ironsides, Old See: Constitution, USS.
Ironwood, or hornbeam, name given to several plants with very hard wood, belonging to the birch family.
Iroquois, Native American tribes of the Iroquoian linguistic family, members of the Iroquois League.
Irradiation, exposure to radiation such as ultraviolet rays, X rays, and gamma rays, or to beams of atomic particles such as neutrons.
Irrawaddy River, main waterway of Burma, formed by the confluence of the Mali and Nmai rivers.
Irrigation, artificial application of water to soil to promote plant growth.
IRS See: Internal Revenue Service.
Irving, John (1942– ), U.S. author of the best-sellers The World According to Garp (1978) and The Hotel New Hampshire (1981).
Irving, Sir Henry (John Henry Brodribb; 1838–1905), greatest English actor-manager of his day.
Irving, Washington (1783–1859), first U.S. writer to achieve international acclaim.
Isaac, in the Old Testament (Genesis), second of the Hebrew patriarchs.
Isabella, name of 2 queens of Spain.
Isaiah, Hebrew prophet of the 8th century B.C. for whom the Old Testament Book of Isaiah was named; probably only the first 36 chapters represent his teachings, the remainder (often known as Deutero- and Trito-Isaiah) being additions by his followers.
Iscariot, Judas See: Judas Iscariot.
Isfahan, or Esfahan (pop. 926,000), city in west-central Iran, on the Zayandeh River.
Isherwood, Christopher (1904–86), English-born novelist and playwright who settled in the United States in 1939.
Ishmael (Hebrew: “outcast”), in the Old Testament (Genesis), son of Abraham and Hagar and half-brother of Isaac, considered an ancestor by Arabs.
Ishtar See: Astarte.
Isis, in ancient Egyptian mythology, nature goddess, sister and wife of Osiris, mother of Horus.
Islam (Arabic: “submitting oneself to God”), one of the major world religions, the youngest of the 3 monotheistic religions developed in the Middle East.
Islamabad (pop. 236,000), city in northeast Pakistan, capital since its construction in the 1960s.
Islamic art, art and architecture that grew out of the Islamic way of life. Because there was no strong tradition of Arab art, it adapted the Byzantine, Sassanian, and Coptic styles of Muslim-dominated lands. Arab influence added a sense of visual rhythm and an interest in astronomy and mathematics. Interpretations of the prophet Muhammad's sayings, however, forbade portrayals of people or …
Island, land area entirely surrounded by water, but not so large that it ranks as a continent (such as Australia).
Isle of Man See: Man, Isle of.
Isle of Wight See: Wight, Isle of.
Islets of Langerhans See: Pancreas.
Isocrates (436–338 B.C.), Greek orator and pupil of Socrates who founded a celebrated school of rhetoric in Athens.
Isolationism, national policy of avoiding entanglement in foreign affairs, a recurrent phenomenon in U.S. history.
Isomers, chemical compounds having identical chemical composition and molecular formula, but differing in the arrangement of atoms in their molecules, and having different properties.
Isoptera, order of insects that live in colonies and have a highly developed social organization.
Isotope, atom of a chemical element which have the same number of protons in the nucleus, but a different numbers of neutrons, i.e., having the same atomic number but different mass.
Israel, republic in southwest Asia, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. The capital is Jerusalem. Israel is 7,992 sq mi (20,700 sq km). On the west is a long, straight coastline on the Mediterranean; to the south, a very short coastline gives it access to the Gulf of Aqaba of the Red Sea through the port of Elath. The 3 geographical regions are the mountainous Galilee region of the north,…
Israel, Kingdom of, Hebrew kingdom, first as united under Saul, David, and Solomon (1020–922 B.C.), and then the breakaway state in the north founded by Jeroboam I in the territory of the 10 tribes.
Israelites See: Jews.
Istanbul (pop. 6,620,200), city in northwest Turkey, lying on the Sea of Marmara and divided by the Bosporus (strait).
Isthmus, narrow strip of land connecting 2 large land masses.
Italian, one of the Romance languages, spoken in Italy and in parts of Switzerland, France, and Yugoslavia.
Italian literature, literature dated to Francis of Assissi's Canticle of the Sun (1226), written not in Latin but the vernacular. The love theme was expressed in Dante's The Divine Comedy (1321). Petrarch combined Christian living with classical ethics in Il Canzoniere (The Book of Songs) in the mid 1300s and Boccaccio's masterpiece, The Decameron (1349–1353), depicted …
Italian Somaliland See: Somalia.
Italo-Ethiopian War (1935–36), Fascist Italy's conquest of Ethiopia, launched from Italian-held Eritrea and Somalia.
Italy, republic in southern Europe, mainly a long, narrow, boot-shaped peninsula that extends into the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded on the north by France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia; on the west by the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian seas; on the east by the Adriatic Sea; and to the south by the Ionian Sea. The islands of Sicily and Sardinia and numerous smaller islands are parts of its terri…
Iturbide, Agustín de (1783–1824), Mexican revolutionary and emperor of Mexico (1822–23).
Ivan, name of 6 Russian rulers.
Ivan V See: Peter I, the Great.
Ives, Charles Edward (1874–1954), U.S. composer.
Ives, James Merritt See: Currier & Ives.
Ivory, hard white dentine substance making up the tusks of elephants, walruses, and other tusked mammals.
Ivory Coast, republic in West Africa. The capital is Yamoussoukro. The Ivory Coast occupies about 124,503 sq mi (322,462 sq km) on the northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea and is bordered on the east by Ghana, on the west by Liberia and Guinea, and on the north by Mali and Upper Volta. Behind the sand spits, navigable lagoons, and surf beaches of the 315-mi (507-km) coastline, a dense rain forest …
Ivory palm, or ivory nut palm (Phytelephas macrocarpa), slow-growing palm with a short trunk, native to South America.
Ivy, hardy, evergreen plant (genus Hedera) of the family Araliaceae.
Iwo Jima, Japanese island in the western Pacific, scene of a fierce battle in World War II.
Ixtacihuatl, or Iztaccihuatl (Aztec: “white woman”), dormant volcano in central Mexico, about 35 mi (56 km) southeast of Mexico City.
Izmir (Greek: Smyrna; pop. 1,757,400), port city on the west coast of Turkey, at the head of the Gulf of Izmir, about 45 mi (72 km) from the Aegean Sea.
J, tenth letter of the English alphabet.
Jaçana, any of several water birds of the jaçana family with long legs and toes that enable it to walk on water lilies and other floating plants.
Jabbar, Kareem Abdul- See: Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem.
Jabiru, any of various large birds of the stork family found from Mexico to Argentina.
Jacaranda, any of various species of flowering tree (genus Jacaranda) native to South America and the West Indies and grown widely in Africa, the southern United States, and other warm places.
Jack Frost, personification of winter, depicted in many children's stories as a rosy-cheeked imp.
Jack-in-the-pulpit, any of several plants of the arum family (genus Ari-saema) that flower in spring before the leaves appear.
Jack rabbit, common name for hares of the genus Lepus.
Jack the Ripper, unknown murderer of at least seven prostitutes in London between Aug. 7 and Nov. 10, 1888.
Jackal, carnivorous mammal (genus Canus) closely related to dogs and wolves.
Jackdaw, small crow (Carrus monedula) of Europe, western Asia, and North Africa.
Jackson (pop. 395,396), capital and largest city of Mississippi, located on the west bank of the Pearl River.
Jackson, Alexander Young (1882–1974), an original member of “The Group of Seven” Toronto landscape artists of the 1920s and 1930s.
Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845), 7th president of the United States. Jackson, the first person from west of the Appalachians to be elected president, transformed the presidency with his rugged frontier virtues and devotion to “the common man.” His 2 terms in office coincided with a great period of democratic reforms known as “Jacksonian Democracy.” At age 13, Jackson…
Jackson, Helen Hunt (1831–85), U.S. author who publicized the mistreatment of Native Americans.
Jackson, Henry Martin (1912–83), U.S. political leader, Democratic representative (1941–53) and senator from Washington (1953–83).
Jackson Hole, fertile valley in northwestern Wyoming partially lying in Grand Teton National Park.
Jackson, Jesse Louis (1941– ), U.S. clergyman and political leader.
Jackson, Mahalia (1911–72), African-American gospel singer whose powerful and expressive contralto voice gained her a worldwide reputation.
Jackson, Michael (1958– ), U.S. rock singer, songwriter, and dancer.
Jackson, Robert Houghwout (1892–1954), U.S.
Jackson, Shirley (1919–65), U.S. author.
Jackson, Stonewall (Thomas Jonathan Jackson; 1824–63), Confederate general in the American Civil War.
Jackson, William Henry (1843–1942), U.S. photographer known for his documentation of the scenery of the West.
Jacksonville (pop. 661,200), city in Florida, seat of Duval County.
Jacob, in the Old Testament, son of Isaac and Rebecca, ancestor of the Israelites.
Jacob, François (1920– ), French biologist who shared with J.L.
Jacobean style, term applied to early English Renaissance architecture and furniture that flourished during the reign of James I.
Jacobins, powerful political clubs during the French Revolution, named for the former Jacobin (Dominican) convent where the leaders met.
Jacobites, supporters of that branch of the House of Stuart exiled by the Glorious Revolution of 1688; a large number were Highland Scots.
Jacobs, Joseph (1854–1916), English scholar and writer of children's fairy tales.
Jade, name for either of 2 tough, hard minerals with a compact interlocking structure, commonly green but sometimes white, mauve, or yellow.
Jaeger, any of various large, fast-flying birds (genus Stercoranius) of the northern seas.
Jaffa, port on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, just south of Tel Aviv, Israel, with which it was merged in 1949.
Jagger, Mick See: Rolling Stones.
Jaguar, large cat (Panthera onca) found in Mexico and Central and South America.
Jaguarundi, long-tailed, short-legged cat (Felis jaguarondi) that resembles a large weasel.
Jahan, Shah See: Shah Jahan.
Jahn, Helmut (1940– ), German-born U.S. architect whose work emphasizes steel, glass, and concrete, erected straight lines and overlapping planes, as exemplified in Kemper Arena (1974) and Bartle Convention Center (1976), both in Kansas City, Mo.
Jai alai, or pelota, Spanish-Basque game similar to handball, from which it evolved in the 17th century.
Jainism, philosophy and religion with about 2 million adherents, mainly in India.
Jakarta (pop. 8,222,500), capital and largest city of Indonesia, in northwestern Java.
Jakes, Milos (1922– ), former president of Czechoslovakia (1987–89).
Jamaica, third-largest island in the West Indies, situated in the Caribbean Sea, 90 mi (145 km) south of Cuba and 100 mi (161 km) west of Haiti. The name Jamaica is derived from the Arawak Indian name Xaymaca (isle of woods and water). Jamaica's surface is largely a limestone plateau, with a backbone of mountains and volcanic hills running east and west. In the east, Blue Mountain has an el…
James, name of 6 kings of Scotland. James I (1394–1437) technically became king in 1406, but he was held prisoner in England 1406–24. After being ransomed by Scottish nobles, he returned to Scotland and suppressed a turbulent aristocracy; he was assassinated during an abortive aristocratic revolt. James II (1430–60) reigned 1437–60. His son, James III(1451–88), r…
James, name of 2 kings of England, Scotland, and Ireland, both belonging to the House of Stuart. James I (1566–1625), became king of Scotland in 1567, when his mother, Mary Queen of Scots, was forced to abdicate. Until 1583, when James turned 17, the country was ruled by regents. James supported Elizabeth I of England and in 1587 accepted the execution of his mother. In 1603 he succeeded El…
James Bay, inlet of the southern part of Hudson Bay, Canada.
James, Epistle of, 20th book of the New Testament, traditionally attributed to St.
James the Greater, Saint, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus along with his brother, St.
James, Henry (1843–1916), U.S.-born novelist and critic, brother of William James.
James, Jesse (1847–82), U.S. outlaw.
James the Less, Saint, one of the twelve apostles of Jesus.
James, P(hyllis) D(orothy) (1920– ), English mystery writer.
James River, river in Virginia, formed by the confluence of the Jackson and Cowpasture rivers and flowing east and southeast past Lynchburg and Richmond to Chesapeake Bay.
James, Saint, Christian leader of the 1st century A.D., referred to as the brother of Jesus in the Galatian Epistles, though theologians have disputed any blood relationship between them.
James, William (1842–1910), U.S. philosopher and psychologist, considered the originator of the doctrine of pragmatism; brother of novelist Henry James.
Jamestown, former village in southeastern Virginia, on the James River, first permanent English settlement in North America.
Janácek, Leo (1854–1928), Czech composer and collector of Moravian folk music, best known for his operas Jenufa (1904), Katia Kabanova (1921), and The Makropulos Case (1926).
Janissaries, elite Turkish infantry of the 14th-19th century, conscripted from prisoners of war and Christian children abducted and reared as fanatical Muslims.
Jansen, Cornelius (1585–1638), Dutch Roman Catholic theologian.
Jansky, Karl Guthe (1905–50), U.S. radio engineer.
Janus, in Roman mythology, guardian of gateways and doors and god of beginnings.
Japan (Japanese: Nippon), country off the east coast of Asia, an archipelago of 4 principal islands (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku), 500 smaller islands, and 3,000 minor ones. The capital is Tokyo. The Japanese archipelago extends 1,300 mi (2,092 km) from northeast to southwest. Most of its area of 154,883 sq mi (377,835 sq km) is accounted for by the 4 main islands. More than 4/5 of Japan…
Japan clover See: Lespedeza.
Japan Current, or Kuroshio, warm strong ocean current running northeast along the southeastern Japanese coast.
Japan, Sea of, arm of the Pacific Ocean between Japan and the eastern coast of Asia.
Japanese, language spoken by more than 100 million people, most of them in Japan.
Japanese beetle, metallic green beetle (Popillia japonica), related to the June beetle.
Japanese chin, or Japanese spaniel, dog native to China.
The Heian period (794–1185) marked the end of Japan's absorption of the Chinese influence and the emergence of its own distinct literary character and genius. The Chinese ideograms were too complex for rapidly recording running throught or quick impressions, so the Japanese developed two distinct cursive scripts, the flowing hiragana and the angular katakana. The greatest work of the…
Japanese print, fine art developed in 17th-century Japan.
Japanese spaniel See: Japanese chin.
Jarrell, Randall (1914–65), U.S. poet and influential critic.
Jaruzelski, Wojciech (1923– ), Polish general and politician, appointed both premier and Communist party leader in 1981 to resolve the crisis involving the independent trade union Solidarity.