Hu Yaobang (1915–089), general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party (1981–87).
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Humber, River to Indus Valley civilization
Humber, River, river in Humberside county, England, flowing eastward into the North Sea.
Humboldt Current See: Peru Current.
Humboldt, Friedrich Heinrich Alexander, Baron von (1769–1859), German naturalist.
Hume, David (1711–76), Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, economist, and historian.
Humidity, amount of water vapor in the air.
Hummingbird, tiny nectar-feeding bird of the family Trochilidae.
Hummingbird moth See: Hawk moth.
Humor, according to the ancients, any of the 4 bodily elements: phlegm, blood, choler, and black bile, corresponding to the 4 natural elements: earth, air, fire, and water.
Humperdinck, Engelbert (1854–1921), German composer.
Humphrey, Doris (1895–1958), U.S. modern dancer and choreographer.
Humphrey, Hubert Horatio (1911–78), U.S. political leader, vice president from 1965 to 1969.
Humus, organic substance formed in soil when microorganisms, bacteria, and fungi decompose plant and animal material.
Hun, nomadic, probably Mongolian, race that invaded southeastern Europe during the 4th and 5th centuries.
Hunchback, or kyphosis, deformity of the spine causing bent posture with or without twisting (scoliosis) and abnormal bony prominences.
Hundred Days, in French history, period between Napoleon's return to Paris from exile on Elba and the second Bourbon restoration (Mar. 20-June 28, 1815).
Hundred Years War, sporadic series of wars fought mainly between England and France from 1337 to 1453. They originated in disputes over English possessions in France, and the claims of Edward III of England to the throne of France. In 1337 he invaded Gascony and won the battles of Sluis (1340), Crécy (1346), and Poitiers (1356), and seized Calais, gaining important concessions at the Treaty…
Hungarian, or Magyar, one of the Ungro-Finnic languages in the Uralic group.
Hungarian pointer See: Vizsla.
Hungary, country in east-central Europe, bordered by Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and Austria. The capital is Budapest, where nearly 20% of the population lives. Hungary is basically a fertile plain, drained by the Danube River, which forms part of the border with Slovakia and then turns south through the country. The Dráva, which…
Hunger, appetite (impulse, drive) for food, often referring also to the mass of uneasy sensations from the gut and particularly from hunger contractions in the stomach, which accompany the appetite; also used to describe sexual appetite.
Hunt, H(aroldson) L(afayette) (1889–1974), U.S. oil magnate.
Hunt, (James Henry) Leigh (1784–1859), English critic, journalist, and poet.
Hunt, Richard Morris (1828–95), U.S. architect.
Hunt, William Holman (1827–1910), English painter who helped found the Pre-Raphaelite movement.
Hunting, pursuit and killing of wild animals for subsistence, profit, or sport. In Western Europe hunting means the pursuit and capture of a wild animal with the aid of hounds. In the United States and elsewhere the term means the field sport of shooting large and small game. Hunting was an important source of food, clothing, and sometimes shelter for primitive people. Cave paintings in France and…
Huntington (pop. 312,529), largest city in West Virginia, located on the Ohio River.
Huntington, Collis Potter (1821–1900), U.S. railroad tycoon.
Huntington, Henry Edwards (1850–1927), U.S. financier; nephew and heir of Collis P.
Huntington's disease (Huntington's chorea), disease marked by progressive degeneration of the central nervous system.
Huntington, Samuel (1731–96), Connecticut political figure who signed the Declaration of Independence.
Huntsman's-cup See: Pitcher plant.
Huntsville (pop. 238,912), city in northeastern Alabama.
Hunza, district in northern Kashmir controlled by Pakistan.
Hurdling, track and field sport in which runners jump over obstacles called hurdles, which stand at specific heights and are set equal distances apart on the track.
Huron, league of 4 Native North American tribes, approximately 20,000 strong, who lived in South Ontario in the 1600s.
Hurricane, tropical cyclone of great intensity.
Hurston, Zora Neale (1901–60), U.S. author known for her literary interpretations of African-American folklore of the southern United States and the Caribbean.
Hus, Jan (1370–1415), Bohemian religious reformer and Czech national hero.
Husák, Gustav (1913–91), Czechoslovakian Communist leader.
Husein Ibn Ali (1854–1931), sharif of Mecca (1908–16) and king of Hejaz (1916–24).
Husky See: Siberian husky.
Hussar, European soldier who was a member of light cavalry units used for scouting.
Hussein I (1935– ), king of Jordan since 1953.
Hussein, Saddam (1937– ), Arab nationalist leader, president and dictator of Iraq from 1979. As chair of the Revolutionary Command Council of the Arab Ba'ath Socialist Party, a pan-Arab organization that controls all facets of Iraqi society, he established a regime marked by widespread repression, imprisonment, and fear. At the same time, the government made significant progress in i…
Husserl, Edmund (1859–1938), Czech-born German philosopher who founded phenomenology.
Huston, name of 3 film personalities.
Hutchins, Robert Maynard (1899–1977), U.S. educator, president (1929–45) and chancellor (1945–51) of the University of Chicago.
Hutchinson, Anne Marbury (1591–1643), English Puritan religious leader, one of the founders of Rhode Island.
Hutchinson, Thomas (1711–80), American colonial governor of Massachusetts, 1770–74.
Hutterites, or Hutterlan Brethren, Protestant sect found primarily in South Dakota, and Canada.
Hutton, James (1726–97), Scottish geologist who proposed, in Theory of the Earth (1795), that the earth's natural features result from continual processes, occurring now at the same rate as they have in the past.
Huxley, British family of writers and scientists. Thomas Henry Huxley (1825–95), biologist, is best known for his support of Darwin's theory of evolution, without which acceptance of the theory might have been long delayed. Most of his own contributions to paleontology and zoology (especially taxonomy), botany, geology, and anthropology were related to this. He also coined the word &…
Huygens, Christiaan (1629–95), Dutch scientist.
Hyacinth, plant (genus Hyacinthus, especially H. orientalis) of the lily family grown from a bulb that produces a head of beautifully colored and perfumed flowers.
Hyaline membrane disease, or respiratory distress syndrome, lung condition that is a common cause of death in premature babies.
Hybrid, crossbred animal or plant; an offspring of 2 different breeds, genera, or varieties.
Hyderabad (pop. 751,500), third largest city in Pakistan, located on the Indus River in Sind province.
Hyderabad (pop. 3,145,900), capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh and historically of the region also called Hyderabad.
Hyderabad, region on the Deccan plateau that was once a state of south central India.
Hydra, in Greek mythology, serpent with many heads, also known as Lernaean Hydra or Hydra of Lerna.
Hydra, genus of freshwater animal of the phylum Coelenterata, perhaps the most familiar of the class Hydrozoa.
Hydrangea, genus of ornamental shrub of the saxifrage family originally from China and Japan, widely grown in pots and gardens.
Hydrate, any of various chemical compounds composed of water and some other substance.
Hydraulic brake See: Brake.
Hydraulic engine, or fluidic engine, machine that uses the motion or pressure of fluids (like oil, silicone, gas, and sometimes water) to produce power.
Hydraulics, branch of science concerned with the application of the properties of liquids (particularly water), at rest and in motion, to engineering problems.
Hydrazine, chemical compound (H2NNH2), used in jet and rocket fuels, explosives, and corrosion inhibitors.
Hydriodic acid See: Hydrogen iodide.
Hydrobromic acid See: Hydrogen bromide.
Hydrocarbon, any organic compound of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrochloric acid, chemical compound (HCL) with many industrial uses.
Hydroelectric power See: Electric power; Water power.
Hydrofluoric acid, inorganic chemical compound (HF), also called hydrogen fluoride, formed when hydrofluoric gas is dissolved in water.
Hydrofoil, structure that, when moved rapidly through water, generates lift in exactly the same way and for the same reasons as does the airfoil.
Hydrogen, chemical element, symbol H; for physical constants see Periodic Table. Hydrogen was prepared for many years before it was recognized as a distinct substance by Henry Cavendish in 1766. It is the most abundant element in the universe, making up about three quarters of the mass of the universe. On earth hydrogen occurs chiefly in combination with oxygen in water. Hydrogen is prepared comme…
Hydrogen bomb, or thermonuclear bomb, very powerful bomb whose explosive energy is produced by nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes, as of 2 deuterium atoms or of a deuterium and a tritium atom.
Hydrogen bromide, chemical compound (HBr) that is a colorless, corrosive gas.
Hydrogen fluoride See: Hydrofluoric acid.
Hydrogen iodide, chemical compound (HI) that is a colorless gas with a sharp odor.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), unstable chemical compound that acts as an oxidizing agent that may cause poisoning.
Hydrogen sulfide, colorless, poisonous, flammable gas (H2S) with an odor of rotting eggs.
Hydrogenation, chemical process that adds hydrogen to some other substance.
Hydrology, branch of geophysics concerned with the hydrosphere (all the waters of the earth), with particular reference to water on and within the land.
Hydrolysis, in chemistry, double decomposition effected by water, according to the general equation XY + H2O → XOH + YH.
Hydrometer, device that measures the specific gravity of a liquid (its density relative to that of water).
Hydrophobia See: Rabies.
Hydroplane, speedboat designed so that the hull rides above the surface of the water.
Hydroponics, or soil-less culture, technique by which plants are grown without soil.
Hydrosphere, all the waters of the earth, in whatever form: solid, liquid, gaseous.
Hydrotherapy, external application of water for therapeutic purposes.
Hydroxide, chemical compound containing the negatively charged hydroxyl ion (OH-), used in the manufacture of detergents and medicines.
Hyena, 3 species of carnivorous mammals, family Hyaenidae, native to Asia and Africa.
Hygiene See: Health.
Hygrometer, device to measure humidity (the amount of water vapor the air holds). Usually, hygrometers measure relative humidity, the amount of moisture as a percentage of the saturation level at that temperature. In the hair hygrometer, which is of limited accuracy, the length of a hair (usually human) increases with increase in relative humidity. This length change is amplified by a lever and re…
Hyksos, Asian group who invaded Egypt in the 18th century B.C. and formed the 15th and 16th dynasties of Egypt.
Hymn, sacred song in praise of gods or heroes, found in almost all cultures, ancient and modern.
Hyperactive child, excessively active child who cannot concentrate on any one task for more than a few minutes.
Hyperbola, in geometry, curve consisting of 2 separate branches opening out in opposite directions.
Hyperkinesis See: Hyperactive child.
Hyperopia See: Farsightedness.
Hypertension, abnormally high blood pressure.
Hyperventilation, abnormal, deep and rapid breathing, frequently caused by anxiety.
Hypnos, in Greek mythology, the god of sleep.
Hypnosis, artificially induced mental state characterized by an individual's loss of critical powers and consequent openness to suggestion. It may be induced by an external agency or self-induced (autohypnosis). Hypnotism has been widely used in medicine (usually to induce analgesia) and especially in psychiatry and psychotherapy. Here, the particular value of hypnosis is that while in tran…
Hypochlorous acid, weak inorganic acid (HOC1) used in bleaches and disinfectants.
Hypochondria, or hypochondriasis, mental condition involving undue anxiety about real or supposed ailments, usually in the belief that these are incurable.
Hypoglycemia, abnormally low level of glucose in the blood.
Hypothalamus, central part of the base of the brain, closely related to the pituitary gland.
Hypothermia, subnormal temperature of the body. Initial symptoms are weakness, slurred speech, confusion, shivering, and clumsiness. If the condition progresses, the weakness is replaced by stiff muscles, the person feels unable to move, and drowsiness and sleepiness occur. The body is no longer able to conserve heat, and the body temperature falls rapidly. Eventually, if nothing is done to return…
Hyrax, or cony, rabbit-sized mammal of Africa and South Asia, of the order Hyracoidea, closely related to the elephant.
Hyssop, herb (Hyssopus officinalis) of the mint family.
Hysterectomy, surgical removal of the womb, with or without the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
Hysteria, or conversion disorder, medical diagnostic term for illness characterized by physical complaints without physical cause.
I, ninth letter of the English alphabet.
I Ching, or Book of Changes, ancient Chinese philosophical and literary classic dating to c.12th century B.C.
Iacocca, Lee (1924– ), U.S. businessman and automobile executive; chairman and chief executive of the Chrysler Corporation.
Ibáñez, Vicente Blasco See: Blasco Ibáñez, Vicente.
Ibadan (pop. 1,060,000), second largest city in Nigeria.
Iberian Peninsula, landmass in southwestern Europe, occupied by Spain and Portugal.
Ibert, Jacques (1890–1962), French composer of piano pieces, orchestral works, symphonic poems, and operas.
Iberville, Sieur d' (1661–1706), French-Canadian fur trader and explorer, founder of Louisiana.
Ibex, 7 species of wild goats (genus Capra) of the Eastern Hemisphere that differ from true goats in their flattened foreheads and usually broad-fronted horns.
Ibis, heronlike wading bird (family Threskiornithidae) of moderate size, characterized by a long, thin, downward-curving bill.
Ibizan hound, rare dog breed from Ibiza, an island off the eastern coast of Spain.
Ibn Batuta (1304?–78?), greatest Arab traveler of the Middle Ages.
Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), Arab historian and sociologist.
Ibn Saud (1880–1953), creator of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Ibn-Sina See: Avicenna.
Ibo See: Igbo.
Ibsen, Henrik (1828–1906), Norwegian playwright and poet.
Ibuprofen, drug used for the relief of headaches, muscle aches, pain, and for the reduction of fever.
Icarus, in Greek mythology, son of Daedalus, with whom he was imprisoned in the labyrinth by King Minos of Crete.
ICBM See: Guided missile.
Ice, frozen water; colorless crystalline solid in which the strong, directional hydrogen bonding produces a structure with much space between the molecules.
Ice age, any of several periods in geologic time when thick ice caps and glaciers covered large areas of the earth that now have temperate or warm climates. In 1837 Louis Agassiz, a Swiss-U.S. naturalist, was one of the first to argue that a great ice age in the past explained land features associated with glaciation hundreds of miles from permanent ice. Geologists later established that there hav…
Ice cream, frozen dairy food whose main ingredients are sugar, cream or butterfat, water, flavorings, and air.
Ice hockey See: Hockey.
Ice skating, winter sport in the United States, Canada, and the countries of northern Europe. Originally confined to natural settings and conditions, such as frozen lakes and rivers, the sport has been widely popularized by the introduction of artificial rinks. Competitive skating, which requires many years of intensive practice, consists of figure skating and speed skating. Figure skating is a hi…
Iceberg, large floating mass of ice.
Icebreaker, vessel designed to break channels through ice for other ships, chiefly in harbors and rivers. They are of special importance in Canada, the former USSR, and Scandinavia. An icebreaker has a very strong reinforced hull and is equipped with high-powered engines that transmit power to the rugged propeller by electrical means. This enables the vessel to develop maximum power from a standin…
Icecap, extensive perennial cover of ice and snow, covering huge sections of the earth's polar regions.
Iceland (Icelandic: Island), nation located on second-largest island of Europe, situated in the North Atlantic Ocean just south of the Arctic Circle, 200 mi (320 km) southeast of Greenland, 650 mi (1,050 km) west of Norway, and 500 mi (800 km) northwest of Scotland. Iceland has more than 100 volcanic peaks with varying degrees of activity. Enormous ice explosions sometimes take place due to erupti…
Ichneumon wasp, parasitic wasp (family Ichneumonidae) equipped with a long egg-laying organ, the ovipositor, like a hypodermic needle.
Ickes, Harold Le Claire (1874–1952), U.S. government official.
Icon (Greek, “image”), religious image in the Eastern and Russian Orthodox churches.
Iconoclast (Greek eikon, “image” + klastes, “breaker”), person who practices iconoclasm, opposition to the religious use of images.
Id See: Psychoanalysis.
Idaho, state in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States; bordered on the east by Montana and Wyoming, on the south by Utah and Nevada, on the west by Oregon and Washington, and on the north by British Columbia. Idaho is dominated by the Rockies, including the Bitter-root, Salmon River, and Sawtooth ranges. About 50 of the state's peaks are over 10,000 ft (3,000 m) high. The Snake Riv…
Idaho Falls (pop. 39,734), third largest city in Idaho, located in the southeastern portion of the state, on the Snake River.
Idealism, any one of a variety of systems of philosophical thought that would make the ultimate reality of the universe expressible or intelligible only in terms of ideas rather than in terms of matter or space.
Ideology, set of beliefs based on related political, social, and economic assumptions.
Ides, 15th day of Mar. in the ancient Roman calendar and the day in 44 B.C. on which Julius Caesar was assassinated in the Roman senate.
Idolatry, in religion, worship of an image or statue representing a god or spirit.
Idyl (Greek, “little picture”), short poem that deals with rural scenery, beauty, and tranquility.
Ife, town in the Oyo province in southwestern Nigeria.
Igbo, or Ibo, large ethnic group in Nigeria.
Igloo, shelter or hunting ground dwelling for the Canadian Eskimos.
Ignatius of Antioch, Saint (d. c.A.D. 100), Christian bishop of Antioch, condemned to death in Trajan's reign.
Ignatius Loyola, Saint See: Loyola, Saint Ignatius.
Igneous rock, one of the 3 main classes of rocks, that whose origin is the solidification of molten material, or detrital volcanic material.
Ignition, system used to start an engine.
Iguana, family of lizards, the largest and most elaborately marked lizards of the New World.
Ikhnaton See: Akhenaton.
Iliad, ancient Greek epic poem of 24 books in hexameter verse, attributed to Homer; internal references suggest it was composed in the mid-8th century B.C.
Illegal alien, person living in a country where he or she is not a citizen and without the government's consent.
Illicium, sole genus of plant belonging to the family Illiciales, of the illiciales order.
Illinois, state in the north central United States; bordered by Lake Michigan in the northeast, Indiana in the east, Kentucky in the southeast, Missouri in the southwest, Iowa in the northwest, and Wisconsin in the north. Illinois consists almost entirely of a rolling plain that slopes gradually from north to south. Much of the north and central portions of the state are covered by dark prairie so…
Illinois, tribal confederation of Native Americans belonging to the Algonquian linguistic group and related to Ojibwas and Miamis.
Illinois River, major waterway linking the Mississippi River with Lake Michigan.
Illiteracy, inability to read and write at least simple messages.
Illumination, the decoration of a handwritten text with ornamental design, letters, and paintings, often using silver and gold leaf.
Illusion See: Optical illusion.
Illyria, ancient country in the northwestern part of the Balkan peninsula.
Iloilo (pop. 309,500), major port of the Philippines located on the island of Panay, one of the Visayan Islands.
Imagists, group of poets writing in the early 20th century in the United States and England who rebelled against the artificiality and sentimentality of much 19th-century poetry.
Imago, psychoanalytic term for the unconscious, idealized representation of oneself or of an important figure from childhood, often a parent.
Imam (Arabic, “leader”) term used in Islam to denote a religious leader.
Imhotep (fl.c.2980–2950 B.C.), Egyptian architect of the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.
Immaculate Conception, Roman Catholic dogma, officially defined in 1854, that the Virgin Mary was conceived free from original sin, owing to a special act of redemptive grace.
Immigration, movement of people into a country to establish a new permanent residence. People become immigrants primarily for economic, political, or religious reasons. The United States is a nation of immigrants. It has received more immigrants from more places than any other country—about 38 million from the 1820s to the 1930s—and is thus known as a “melting pot” of t…
Immortelle (Xeranthemum annuun), any of several species of flower belonging to the composite family and related to the asters.
Immunity, system of defense in animals protecting against foreign materials, specifically, infectious microorganisms, parasites, and their products. For many diseases, humoral immunity, exposure to the causative organism in disease itself or by vaccination, provides acquired resistance to that organism, making further infection with it unlikely or less severe. The antigen (foreign microorganism or…
Immunization, process of becoming, or rendering a body, resistant to a particular disease.
Impala (Aepyceros melampus), one of the most abundant African antelopes.
Impeachment, formal accusation of a crime or other serious misconduct brought against a public official by a legislature. The term sometimes includes the trial by the legislature that follows. Impeachment began in England as a way of putting officials on trial who were derelict in their duties. Under U.S. constitutional procedure the House of Representatives has the power to impeach; the Senate tr…
Imperial Valley, agricultural area in the low-lying Colorado Desert of southeastern California, extending into Mexico, called the “Winter Garden” of America.
Imperialism, policy of one country or people, usually “developed,” to extend its control or influence over other territories or peoples, usually “underdeveloped.” There are many different kinds of imperialism—political, financial, economic, military, and cultural.
Impetigo, superficial skin infection, usually of the face, caused by streptococcus or staphylococcus.
Import See: Exports and imports.
Impressionism, dominant artistic movement in France from the mid-1860s to 1890, characterized by the use of brushstrokes of contrasting colors to convey the impression of objects by the light they reflect.
Inca, Native American empire in the western region of South America which, at the time of the Spanish conquest, occupied what is now Peru, parts of Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina. It extended some 3,000 mi (4,800 km) from north to south, stretching back between 150 and 250 mi (240 and 400 km) from the narrow Pacific coastal plain into the high Andes. The name “Inca” refers to…
Incandescent lamp See: Electric light.
Inchon (pop. 1,817,900), Yellow River port city located in the northwestern part of South Korea.
Inchworm See: Measuring worm.
Incisor See: Teeth.
Income, payment, whether money (pecuniary, cash, or monetary income) or as goods and services (real income), received in return for goods and services. For most people cash income takes the form of a wage or salary, usually expressed as so much per week or month. Cash income is also derived from stock dividends and from rent paid for the use of property. Many people in developing countries depend …
Income tax, the major source of government revenue.
Incubation, method of keeping microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses warm and in an appropriate medium to promote their growth (e.g., in identification of the organisms causing disease); also, period during which an organism is present in the body before causing disease.
Indentured servant, person bound to labor for a stated period, usually 5 to 7 years.
Independence (pop. 111,806), city in Missouri, seat of Jackson County.
Independence Day, or Fourth of July, the principal nonreligious holiday in the United States.
Independence, Declaration of See: Declaration of Independence.
Independence Hall, old state house of Philadelphia, Pa., where the Declaration of Independence was proclaimed and the Constitutional Convention of 1787 met.
Independence, War for See: Revolutionary War in America.
Index, reference list of the topics, subjects, or names in a printed work and where they may be found.
Index of Forbidden Books (Index Librorum Prohibitorum), official list of books banned by the Roman Catholic Church as being in doctrinal or moral error.
India, union of 25 states and 7 territories, the world's seventh-largest country, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent, the land mass of south central Asia that tapers southward from the Himalayan mountain system to Cape Comorin and Sri Lanka. India shares the subcontinent with Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the Himalayan states of Nepal, and Bhutan, with Sri Lanka off its coast. Only the P…
Indian Affairs, Bureau of, U.S. federal agency, part of the Department of the Interior, set up in 1824 to safeguard the welfare of Native Americans.
Indian, American See: Native Americans.
Indian art and architecture, classical tradition dates from the fall of the Indus Valley civilization (1500 B.C.) and the establishment of the Indo-Aryan culture based on Hinduism.
Indian bean See: Catalpa.
Indian Desert See: Thar Desert.
Indian fig See: Prickly pear.
Indian hemp See: Dogbane.
Indian mallow (Abutilon theophrastii), weed of the mallow family, a group of dicotyledonous flowering plants.
Indian Mutiny See: Sepoy Rebellion.
Indian Ocean, world's third largest ocean (28,350,000 sq mi/73,426,500 sq km), bounded by Antarctica to the south, Africa to the west, and Australia and Indonesia to the east.
Indian paintbrush, any of about 200 species (genus Castilleja) of wild-flower in the figwort or snapdragon family of flowering plants.
Indian pipe (Monotropa uniflora), low, flowering plant of the family Ericaceae.
Indian reservation, land set aside by the U.S. government for use by Native Americans.
Indian root See: Spikenard.
Indian Territory, region west of Arkansas, into which the Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribes were forcibly moved under the 1830 Indian Removal Act.
Indian tobacco See: Lobelia.
Indian turnip See: Jack-in-the-pulpit.
Indian wars, struggle in North America between the Native Americans and European colonizers from the earliest colonial times to the late 19th century. Despite peaceful trade under Powhatan, hostilities between Native Americans and the English settlers of Jamestown, Va., began in 1622, and by 1644 the native tribes had been crushed. In New England, war with the Pequot tribe (1636) resulted in their…
Indiana, state of the north-central United States; bordered by Michigan and Lake Michigan (north), Ohio (east), Kentucky (south), and Illinois (west). Indiana's Great Lakes Plains are characterized by rich, black soils and many small lakes, the result of Ice Age glaciers. Along the state's Lake Michigan shorelines lie great sand dunes. The Till Plains of central Indiana are a part of…
Indianapolis (pop. 746,500), capital and largest city of Indiana, located near the center of the state. The city is one of the largest in the world not situated on a navigable waterway. This deficiency made its growth slow from around 1819, when the first settlers arrived, until 1847, when the first railroad reached the town. Additional railroads and roads made it a leading transport terminus. Mod…
Indianapolis 500 See: Automobile racing.
Indians See: Native Americans.
Indies See: East Indies; West Indies.
Indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), North American songbird of the family Emberizidae, which includes the bunting, finches, grosbeaks, and sparrows.
Indium, chemical element, symbol In; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Indo-European languages, large family of language spoken throughout most of Europe and much of Asia, and descended from a hypothetical common ancestor, Proto-Indo-European, extant more than 5,000 years ago.
Indochina, political term for peninsular Southeast Asia between China and India.
Indonesia, republic of southeast Asia occupying most of the Malay archipelago, the world's largest archipelago, consisting of more than 13,000 islands and islets strung out along the equator from Sumatra facing the Indian Ocean in the west to New Guinea in the east. These were the Indies sought by Christopher Columbus and other explorers. The Moluccas, part of Indonesia, were the Spice Isla…
Induction, electric name of the phenomenon whereby an electrically charged object charges another object without touching it.
Inductive method, logical process which starts from the particular and goes to the general.
Indulgence, in the Roman Catholic Church, remission of the temporal punishment (on earth or in purgatory) that remains due for sin even after confession, absolution, and doing penance.
Indus River, river rising in the Himalayas of western Tibet and flowing 1,800 mi (2,900 km) through Kashmir and Pakistan to its 75-mi-(121-km) long delta on the North Arabian Sea.
Indus Valley civilization, centered around the Indus River in India and Pakistan, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent.
Industrial arts, area of general education that includes automobile mechanics, electronics, graphic arts, industrial crafts, industrial drawing, metalworking, plastics, photography, and woodworking.
Industrial design, expression of the special relationship between the artist, the consumer, and the manufacturer in a developed, industrialized society.
Industrial pollution See: Environmental pollution.
Industrial relations, conduct of relations between organized labor and management and the relations between individual workers and their supervisors.
Industrial Revolution, period of rapid transition from an agrarian to an industrial society; specifically, the prototype of such periods, the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the United Kingdom. This period saw Britain transformed from a predominantly agricultural society into the world's first industrial nation. In the 18th century, British imperialism, technology, economic developmen…
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), U.S. labor organization, founded in 1905 by revolutionary socialists to radicalize the labor movement.
Industrialism See: Industrial Revolution.
lleitis, inflammation of the ileum, a section of the small intestine.
llmenite, heavy black metallic oxide mineral that is a source of titanium.