Höchstädt, Battle of See: Blenheim, Battle of.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Hobbema, Meindert to Human Rights, Declaration of
Hölderlin, Johann Christian Friedrich (1770–1843), German lyric poet, noted for the grandeur of his images, derived from classical Greek themes.
Ho Chi Minh (Nguyen Van Thanh; 1890–1969), president of North Vietnam (1954–69).
Ho Chi Minh City (pop. 3,924,400), formerly Saigon, city in Vietnam, 60 mi (97 km) from the South China Sea, on Saigon River.
Hobbema, Meindert (1638–1709), Dutch landscape painter, taught by Jacob van Ruisdael.
Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679), English political philosopher who sought to apply rational principles to the study of human nature.
Hobby, Oveta Culp (1905– ), U.S. publisher and public servant.
Hobson, Laura Zametkin (1900–86), U.S. author born in New York City, the setting for most of her novels.
Hochhuth, Rolf (1931– ), German playwright whose first controversial play, The Deputy (1963), attacked Pope Pius XII for his stand on the Jews in World War II, and whose second, Soldiers (1967), portrayed Winston Churchill as a murderer.
Hockey, game played on ice in which 2 opposing teams of skaters, using curved sticks, try to shoot a flat, rubber disk called a puck, into the opposing goal, which is 4 ft (1.2 m) high and 6 ft (1.8 m) wide. Each goal scored is 1 point and the team with the most goals at the end of the game is the winner. The ice surface, or rink, is usually 200 ft (61 m) long and 98 ft (30 m) wide and is divided …
Hockney, David (1937– ), English artist whose emphases are on figurative work and brilliant color.
Hodgkin, Alan Lloyd (1914–94), English physiologist awarded (with A.
Hodgkin, Dorothy Mary Crowfoot (1910–94), British chemist awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize for chemistry for determining the structure of vitamin B12.
Hodgkin's disease, or lymphadenoma, form of cancer affecting the lymphatic system.
Hoffa, James Riddle (1913–75?), U.S. labor leader, president of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters from 1957.
Hoffer, Eric (1902–1983), self-educated U.S. author and philosopher.
Hoffman, Dustin (1937– ), U.S. actor, known for his versatility in portraying different character types.
Hoffmann, E(rnst) T(heodor) A(madeus) (1776–1822), German romantic author, composer, and critic.
Hofman, Josef (1876–1957), Polish-born U.S. pianist who made a spectacular debut in New York City at the age of 11.
Hofmann, Hans (1880–1966), German-born U.S. artist and teacher, prominent in the abstract expressionism movement.
Hofmannsthal, Hugo von (1874–1929), Austrian neoromantic poet and dramatist.
Hog, pig, or swine, domestic animal (family Suidae) bred for its flesh and fat.
Hogan, Ben (1912– ), U.S. professional golfer.
Hogarth, William (1697–1764), British painter and engraver.
Hogg, Helen Sawyer (1905– ), U.S.-born Canadian astronomer noted for her Catalogue of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters (1939).
Hognose See: Adder.
Hogweed See: Ragweed.
Hohenstaufen, medieval German dynasty of Swabian origin whose members ruled Germany and the Holy Roman Empire.
Hohenzollern, German ruling dynasty that first rose to prominence in the 12th century.
Hohokam See: Pima.
Hokusai, Katsushika (1760–1849), Japanese painter, printmaker, and book illustrator, greatest master of the Japanese ukiyo-e (popular) school.
Holbein, name of 2 German painters, Hans Holbein the Elder (c.1465–1524) was a German Gothic painter of great distinction, best known for his many altarpieces and other church decorations, such as the Kaisheim altar (1502).
Holberg, Ludvig (1864–1754), Norwegian-born Danish playwright and educator.
Holding company, in finance, company that holds a majority or substantial minority of the stock in another company or companies in order to control policies.
Holiday, originally holyday, day commemorating an event, person, or religious occasion on which people set aside their normal work to rest, celebrate, or pray.
Holiday, Billie (Eleanora Fagan; 1915–59), U.S. jazz singer.
Holinshed's Chronicles, or Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, purported histories of the 3 countries, largely edited by Raphael Holinshed (d. c.1580).
Holistic medicine, approach to health and medical care based on the principle that the “whole” person must be treated comprehensively, taking physical, psychological, and environmental factors into account.
Holland See: Netherlands.
Holland, John Philip (1840–1914), Irish-born U.S. inventor who built the first fully successful submarine, the Holland, launched in 1898 and bought by the U.S.
Holland Tunnel See: Hudson River tunnels.
Holly, any of various species of evergreen trees and shrubs (genus Ilex) with glossy, spiny leaves and red or black fruits, usually called berries.
Holly, Buddy (Charles Hardin Holly; 1936–59), U.S. singer, guitarist, and composer, one of rock music's first major performers.
Hollyhock (Althaea rosea), one of the tallest garden flowers.
Hollywood (pop. 210,000), district of Los Angeles, Calif.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1809–94), U.S. author and physician.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. (1841–1935), U.S. jurist, Supreme Court justice (1902–32).
Holmes, Sherlock, fictional detective created by the English author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
Holmium, chemical element, symbol Ho; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Holocaust, term applied to the systematic execution of 6 million European Jews by the German Nazi regime, 1933–45.
Holography, technique for recording and reproducing 3-dimensional images by means of laser beams. The picture taken by the technique, the hologram, is a piece of photographic film that records not the scene itself but the unfocused pattern of light waves coming from the scene. A hologram is made by illuminating both the scene and the film with laser light, which has the important property of conta…
Holst, Gustav Theodore (1874–1934), English composer.
Holy Alliance, collective security agreement created at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 by Russia, Austria, and Prussia and later joined by most other European powers (excluding Britain, Turkey, and the Vatican).
Holy Bible See: Bible.
Holy Grail, legendary talisman, given various forms in various legends.
Holy Land See: Palestine.
Holy Roman Empire, European empire centered in Germany that endured from medieval times until 1806.
Holy wars See: Crusades.
Holy Week, in the Christian church year, week preceding Easter, observed in most churches as a time of solemn devotion to the passion of Christ.
Home economics, in education, all the disciplines necessary to home maintenance: cooking, nutrition, sewing, the nature and use of textiles, household equipment, and budgeting.
Home, Lena (1917– ), U.S. actress and blues singer.
Home, Lord (1903–95), British politician, prime minister (1963–64).
Home, Marilyn (1934– ), U.S. mezzo-soprano.
Home Rule, U.S. system of self-government under which some states grant cities and counties the right to adapt their own charters and laws, provided these do not conflict with the state and federal constitutions.
Homelessness, term coined in the 1980s to describe the growing condition of mostly city-dwelling people who have no permanent place to live.
Homeopathy, system of treating disease by administering small doses of a drug that would cause a healthy person to have the symptoms of the disease under treatment.
Homeostasis, self-regulating mechanisms through which biological systems maintain a stable internal condition in the face of changes in the external environment.
Homer (8th century B.C.?), Greek epic poet to whom are ascribed the Iliad and Odyssey, universally regarded as among the greatest works of western literature.
Homer, Winslow (1836–910), U.S. painter who often worked in water-color, best known for his landscapes and sea studies of New England and Florida, such as Gulf Stream (1899).
Homestead Act, act of the U.S.
Homestead Strike, bitter labor dispute (1892) between steel workers and the Carnegie Steel Company, in Homestead, Pa., a landmark in the history of the U.S. labor movement.
Homicide, killing of a human being by another.
Homing pigeon, bird of the family Columbidae able to return to its loft from vast distances, selectively crossbred to combine speed and stamina.
Homo erectus, early species of human being, having larger teeth and smaller brains than modern humans (Homo sapiens).
Homo habilis, oldest species of human being yet discovered, believed to have lived in Africa about 2 million years ago, probably the first known human to make stone tools.
Homo sapiens, species of humans approximately 450,000 years old, with the oldest known fossil remains dating back about 375,000 years.
Homogenization, process to delay the separation of fat in milk, an unstable emulsion containing fat globules that tend to coalesce.
Homologue, in biology, structure or organ with the same evolutionary origin as an apparently different structure in another species.
Homosexuality, sexual attraction to persons of one's own sex.
Honduras (Republic of), country in Central America bordered by the Caribbean Sea, Nicaragua, El Salvador and the Pacific Ocean, and Guatemala. The capital is Tegucigalpa. Most of Honduras is mountainous, but there are swamps and forests in the east, along the Mosquito Coast. Enclosed within the mountain ranges are several basins that have become the major population centers. The official language …
Honecker, Erich (1912–94), leader of East Germany (1971–89).
Honegger, Arthur (1892–1955), Swiss-French composer, member of the French Les Six group, best known for his popular Pacific 231 (1923) and his oratorio King David (1921–23).
Honey, sweet substance made through enzyme action by bees from the nectar of flowers.
Honey badger See: Ratel.
Honey bear See: Sloth bear.
Honey bee See: Bee.
Honey locust, any of several trees (genus Gleditsia) of the pea family.
Honeyeater, any of several birds of the family Maliphagidea, native to Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands.
Honeysuckle, common name for shrubs and vines of the family Caprifoliaceae, found in the Northern Hemisphere.
Hong Kong, British Crown colony on the coast of southeast China, about 90 mi (145 km) from Canton, consisting of mainland territories and numerous offshore islands. Hong Kong island was ceded to the British after the Opium War in 1842. Mainland Hong Kong includes Kowloon, acquired in 1860, and the New Territories, leased to Britain for 99 years in 1898. In 1985 an agreement was reached between the…
Honiara (pop. 35,300), capital of the Solomon Islands, an independent state (and member of the British Commonwealth) in the southwest Pacific Ocean.
Honolulu (pop. 371,300), capital and chief seaport of Hawaii, seat of Honolulu County, located on the southeast coast of Oahu Island.
Honorius I (d. 638), pope of the Roman Catholic Church, elected 625.
Honorius III (d. 1227), pope of the Roman Catholic Church, elected 1216.
Hood, John Bell (1831–79), Confederate general in the U.S.
Hood, Thomas (1799–1845), English humorist and editor, known for his Comic Annuals (1830–39, 1842).
Hoof, enlarged, heavy toenail developed by many herbivorous animals.
Hoof-and-mouth disease See: Foot-and-mouth disease.
Hooke, Robert (1635–1703), English experimental scientist and one of the greatest inventors of his age.
Hooker, Joseph (1814–79), U.S. general during the Civil War.
Hooker, Richard (1554–1600), English theologian whose 8-volume work Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, a landmark of Anglican theology, defended the Elizabethan religious settlement against both Roman Catholics and Puritans.
Hooker, Thomas (1586–1647), early American Puritan clergyman.
Hooks, Benjamin Lawson (1925– ), U.S. lawyer, minister, and leader of the African-American community.
Hookworm, any of various intestinal parasites (order Strongiloidae) of humans and domesticated animal.
Hooper, William (1742–90), colonial lawyer and politician from North Carolina.
Hoopoe (Upupa epops), large bird of Europe, Asia, and Africa, named for its call.
Hoosac tunnel, rock tunnel in western Massachusetts, in the Berkshire Hills.
Hoosier Poet See: Riley, James Whitcomb.
Hoosier State See: Indiana.
Hooton, Earnest Albert (1887–1954), U.S. physical anthropologist known for his attempts to relate behavior to physical or racial type.
Hoover Commission, common name for Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, an advisory commission to prepare improvements in the efficiency of the executive branch of government.
Hoover Dam, formerly Boulder Dam (1933–47), on the Colorado River between Nevada and Arizona.
Hoover, Herbert Clark (1874–1964), 31st president of the United States, who held office during the onset of the Great Depression of the 1930s. Hoover's measures against the Depression were widely criticized as being too little and too late. He did, however, to a limited degree, try to use the powers of the government to restore prosperity. Hoover entered Stanford University in 1891 a…
Hoover, J(ohn) Edgar (1895–1972), director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 1924 until his death.
Hop, tall prickly perennial vine (Homulus lupulus) of the mulberry family whose dried female flowers, called hops, contain lupullin, a substance that gives beer its bitter flavor and is used as a preservative.
Hope, Bob (Leslie Townes Hope; 1903– ), English-born U.S. comedian, born in Eltham, England.
Hope, John (1868–1936), U.S. educator and civil rights leader.
HOPE Project, or Health Opportunity for People Everywhere, independent, non-profit organization established in 1958 by Washington, D.C., physician William B.
Hopewell See: Mound Builders.
Hopi, Pueblo Native American tribe of northeast Arizona.
Hopkins, Gerard Manley (1844–1889), English poet and Jesuit priest.
Hopkins, Harry Lloyd (1890–1946), U.S. politician.
Hopkins, Johns (1795–1873), U.S. financier and philanthropist.
Hopkins, Stephen (1707–85), cultural and political leader in colonial Rhode Island.
Hopkinson, Francis (1737–91), American composer, delegate to the Continental Congress, and signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Hopper, Edward (1882–1967), U.S. painter and engraver.
Hopper, Grace Murray (1906– ), U.S. computer scientist whose belief that computer languages should be more like everyday language led, in the 1950s, to the invention of COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language), a widely used computer language.
Hoppner, John (1758–1810), English portraitist to the Prince of Wales (1789), elected to the Royal Academy (1795).
Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus; 65–8 B.C.), Roman lyric poet and satirist.
Horatius (Publius Horatius Codes), legendary Roman hero.
Horehound (Marrubium vulgare), aromatic plant in the mint family, with wrinkled leaves and clusters of small flowers found growing in waste places.
Horizon, apparent line where the sky meets the land or sea.
Hormone, chemical substance produced in living organisms by the endocrine system.
Hormuz, Strait of, 30–50 mi (48–80km) wide waterway leading out of the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and the Indian Ocean.
Horn, in music, brass wind instrument.
Horn, bony extension, usually elongated and pointed, growing from the heads of some mammals, including cattle, sheep, and goats.
Hornbill, any of various birds of the family Bucerotidae noted for their huge bills, which in some species bear an additional growth called a casque.
Hornblende, dark green or black mineral of varied composition, usually including silicates of aluminum and other abundant elements.
Hornbook, children's primer used before printed books became cheap and widely available.
Horned lizard, name for several species of lizards (genus Phrynosoma) native to North America, from Canada to Mexico.
Hornet, any of several kinds of large social wasps (family Vespidae), that, unlike the more common yellow jackets, build their nests in trees or in human dwellings.
Horney, Karen (1885–1952), German-born U.S. psychoanalyst, founder of the American Institute of Psychoanalysis (1941).
Hornsby, Rogers (1896–1963), U.S. baseball player and manager.
Hornwort, any one of a group of plants related to liverworts and mosses and growing world-wide, but most commonly in warm, moist regions.
Horowitz, Vladimir (1904–89), Russian-born U.S. virtuoso pianist.
Horse, hoofed, herbivorous mammal (genus Equus). This is the only living genus of the family Equidae; the donkey and the zebra are different species of the same genus. Wild horses occurred in prehistoric times over most of Eurasia. Today, the only surviving true wild horse is the Przewalski horse of Siberia, Mongolia, and western China. Domestic horses (E. caballus) can be grouped as ponies, heavy…
Horse brier See: Greenbrier.
Horse chestnut, popular name for various trees and shrubs (genus Aesculus) of the family Hippcastanaceae.
Horse latitudes, regions of calm, quiet winds situated on either side of the equator, between 30°N and S latitudes.
Horse nettle See: Solanum.
Horse Racing, sport involving trials of speed between horses, watched by millions of people in many countries.
Horsefly, any of various two-winged flies (family Tabanidae), so called because they bite horses, as well as other mammals.
Horsehair worm, hair snake, or hairworm, any of about 200 types of long, thin worms making up the phylum Nematomorpha.
Horsepower, unit of power used to indicate the rate at which work is done.
Horseradish, common name for a perennial herb (Armoracia rusticana), of the mustard family.
Horseshoe crab, or king crab, any of several marine arthropods of the order Xiphosura, “living fossils” whose almost identical ancestors have been found in rocks 175 million years old.
Horseshoe Falls See: Niagara Falls.
Horseshoe pitching, game played on a court by 2 or more people, in which players attempt to throw horseshoes to encircle an iron stake.
Horsetail, primitive plant (genus Equisetum) related to the fern that once dominated the plant world and was important in the formation of coal.
Horthy de Nagybanya, Miklós (1868–1957), Hungarian admiral and politician who led the counter-revolutionary army that overthrew the Communist and socialist coalition under BélaKun (1919).
Horticultural grafting, technique of propagating plants by attaching the stem or bud of one plant (the scion) to the stem or roots of another (the stock, or rootstock).
Horticulture, branch of agriculture concerned with producing fruits, flowers, and vegetables.
Horus, ancient Egyptian god.
Hosea, Book of, first of the Old Testament Minor Prophets.
Hospice, facility for the care of terminally ill patients.
Hospital, institution for the care of the sick or injured.
Hostage, traditionally, a person delivered as a token of good faith; now hostages are more often kidnapped and tortured by political dissidents demanding concessions.
Hostel See: Youth hostel.
Hot Line, direct White House-Kremlin emergency communications link, established in 1963.
Hot rod, automobile with improved engine or body design, giving greater acceleration and speed.
Hot Springs (pop. 32,462), city in central-western Arkansas, 47 mi (76 km) west and southwest of Little Rock.
Hot springs, or thermal springs, natural discharges of heated water from within the earth.
Hot Springs National Park, park in the Ouachita Mts., Arkansas.
Hotel, a building that provides the public with overnight lodging.
Hottentot See: Khoikhoi.
Houdini, Harry (Erich Weiss; 1874–1926), U.S. magician and escapologist.
Houdon, Jean-Antoine (1741–1828), French sculptor famous for his portraits.
Hound, group of dogs that hunt by sight or by following scent.
Houphouët-Boigny, Félix (1905–93), president of the Ivory Coast since it gained independence (1960) until his death in 1993.
Hour, one twenty-fourth of a day.
Hourglass, ancient instrument to measure the passage of time.
Housatonic River, river rising in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts.
House, building in which one or a few families live.
House of Burgesses, the first representative legislative body in colonial America, formed at Jamestown on July 30, 1619.
House Committee on Un-American Activities See: Un-American Activities Committee.
House of Commons, lower house of the British parliament.
House, Edward Mandell (1858–1938), U.S. diplomat and adviser to President Woodrow Wilson.
House of Lords, upper house of the British parliament.
House of Representatives, one of 2 chambers of the U.S.
Housing, any building, or group of buildings, that provide shelter for people.
Housing and Urban Development, U.S.
Housman, A(lfred) E(dward) (1859–1936), English poet and classical scholar.
Houston (pop. 1,690,200), city and seat of Harris County in southeastern Texas and a major U.S. seaport.
Houston, Sam(uel) (1793–1863), U.S. frontiersman and politician, leader in the struggle against Mexico to create an independent Texas.
Hovercraft See: Air cushion vehicle.
Hovhaness, Alan (1911– ), U.S. composer of Armenian descent, noted for his innovative use of Eastern musical materials.
Howard, John (1726–90), English public official and noted reformer.
Howard, Sidney (1891–1939), U.S. playwright whose work is noted for its realism.
Howard University, private, coeducational institution in Washington, D.C., established in 1867 to educate newly freed slaves.
Howe, Elias (1819–1867), U.S. inventor of the first viable sewing machine (patented 1846).
Howe, Gordie (1928– ), record-setting U.S. ice hockey player.
Howe, Richars and William, name of 2 brothers who were British commanders in the American Revolutionary War.
Howe, Samuel and Julia, name of a U.S. husband and wife who were prominent social reformers.
Howells, William Dean (1837–1920), U.S. author, critic, and chief editor of the Atlantic Monthly (1871–81).
Howler, monkey (genus Alouatta) named for its low, carrying call.
Hoxha, Enver (1908–85), Albanian leader.
Hoyle, Edmond (1672–1769), English authority on card and board games, especially whist.
Hrdlicka, Ales (1869–1943), Bohemian-born U.S. physical anthropologist.
Hsi Chiang See: Xi Jiang.
Hsun-tzu See: Xunzi.
Hua Kuo-Feng (Hua Guofeng; 1920– ), Chinese political leader.
Huang He, or Huang Ho, river in north-central and eastern China.
Huang Ho See: Huang He.
Hubble, Edwin Powell (1889–1953), U.S. astronomer who first showed (1923) that certain nebulae are in fact galaxies outside the Milky Way.
Hubble Space Telescope, orbiting reflecting telescope built to send data from space to astronomers on earth via radio waves.
Huckleberry, shrub (genus Gaylussacia) related to the blueberry and cranberry that produces dark berry fruits.
Hudson Bay, shallow, epicontinental sea in the northern part of Canada, named for Henry Hudson.
Hudson, Henry (d. 1611), English navigator and explorer who gave his name to the Hudson River, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay.
Hudson River, U.S. river rising in the Adirondacks, flowing generally south for 315 mi (507 km) through New York, and emptying into the Atlantic at New York City.
Hudson River School, group of 19th-century U.S. landscape painters.
Hudson River tunnels, 7 underwater commuter tunnels extending under the Hudson River and linking New York City's Manhattan Island and New Jersey.
Hudson's Bay Company, mercantile corporation established by the British in 1670 for trading in the Hudson Bay region.
Hudson, William Henry (1841–1922), English author and naturalist, born in Argentina of American parents.
Hue (pop. 260,500), third largest city in Vietnam, located in central Vietnam, near the eastern coast.
Huerta, Victoriano (1854–1916), Mexican general and dictator (1913–14).
Hufstedler, Shirley Mount (1925– ), U.S. jurist and first secretary of education (1979–81), appointed by President Jimmy Carter.
Hugh Capet (c.938–996 A.D.), king of France (987–996), founder of the Capetian dynasty.
Hughes, Charles Evans (1862–1948), U.S. jurist and statesman.
Hughes, Howard Robard (1905–76), U.S. industrialist, aviator, and film producer.
Hughes, (James) Langston (1902–67), African-American poet and writer.
Hughes, Ted (1930– ), English poet whose work is noted for its brutal, often violent animal imagery.
Hughes, Thomas (1822–96), English jurist, reformer, and author of Tom Brown's School Days (1857) which, through its emphasis on Christian virtues and athletic ability, helped shape the popular image of the English public school.
Hugo, Victor Marle (1802–85), French novelist, playwright, and poet.
Huguenots, French Protestants, followers of John Calvin's teaching.
Huizinga, Johan (1872–1945), Dutch historian and writer, noted for his writings about the cultural history of the Middle Ages, which portrayed the spirit of the entire age.
Huizong, or Hui Tsung (1082–1135), last Chinese emperor of the northern Sung dynasty (r. 1101–25).
Hukbalahap, or Huks (full name: Hukbong Magpapalayang Bayan, “People's Liberation Army”), Communist guerilla movement that posed a serious threat to the Philippine government from 1945 to 1954.
Hull, Bobby (Robert Marvin Hull; 1939– ), Canadian ice hockey player.
Hull, Clark Leonard (1884–1952), U.S. psychologist whose research on the learning process and mathematical approach to theories strengthened the scientific character of the field of psychology.
Hull, Cordell (1871–1955), U.S. statesman, secretary of state (1933–44) under F.D.
Hull House, one of the first U.S. social settlement houses.
Hull, Isaac (1773–1843), U.S. naval officer.
Hull, William (1753–1825), army officer in the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812.
Human being (Homo sapiens), extremely adaptable mammal with highly-developed brain and nervous system, and ability to speak.
Human body, complex organism consisting of some 50 trillion cells, organized into tissues, organs, and structures. The body can best be studied as a complex of systems. (1) The skeletal system, the body's framework, consists of more than 200 bones tied together with strong yet elastic ligaments. It accounts for about 18% of the body's weight. (2) The muscular system consists o…
Human Development Services, Office of, section of the U.S.
Human relations, study of group behavior and how the individual, as an inherently social being with personal needs, may achieve desired goals without losing, or causing others in the general population to lose, the basic rights of dignity, respect, and self-determination.
Human Rights, Declaration of, United Nations document outlining the civil, economic, political, and social rights and freedoms for all the people of the world.
Humane society, organization whose purpose is to protect children and animals from mistreatment.
Humanism, originally, Renaissance revival of the study of classical (Latin, Greek, and Hebrew) literature following the scholasticism of the Middle Ages, more broadly, philosophy centered on humankind and human values, exalting human free will and superiority to the rest of nature.