Sour gum See: Tupelo.
Sour gum See: Tupelo.
Sourwood, or sorrel tree, ornamental deciduous tree (Oxydendrum arboreum) of the heath family.
Sousa, John Philip (1854–1932), U.S. bandmaster and composer.
Souter, David Hackett (1939– ), associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1990– ).
South Africa, independent republic occupying most of the southern tip of the African continent. South Africa covers 471,320 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km). It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the west, the Indian Ocean on the east and south, Namibia to the northwest, Botswana and Zimbabwe to the north, and Mozambique and Swaziland to the northeast. Geographically, South Africa is a vast system of pla…
South America, southern of the 2 continents comprising the Western Hemisphere. South America is separated from North America at the Isthmus of Panama. Covering an area of 6,880,000 sq mi (17,819,000 sq km), South America contains the 12 independent republics of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. There also remains one Eur…
South Arabia, Federation of, previously an English protectorate of the crown colony of Aden and several Arab states including Alawi, Aqrabi, Audhali, Upper and Lower Aulaqi, Fadhli, Haushabi, Lahej, Mufhahi, Shaibi, Wahidi, and Lower Yafa.
South Australia, state in south-central Australia, with an area of 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km).
South Bend (pop. 247,052), city in northern Indiana, seat of St.
South Carolina, state in the southeastern United States; bordered by North Carolina to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and Georgia to the southwest. South Carolina has 3 main land regions. The Blue Ridge, a narrow region in the state's northwestern corner, is part of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which extend into the state. The Piedmont covers most of northwestern South Carolin…
South Dakota, midwestern state in north-central United States; bordered by North Dakota to the north, Minnesota and the Big Sioux River (with Iowa on the other side) to the east, the Missouri River and Nebraska to the south, and Wyoming and Montana to the west. The geographic center of the United States is in South Dakota, near Castle Rock. South Dakota has 4 main land regions. The Black Hills, a …
South Island See: New Zealand.
South Korea See: Korea.
South Pole, point in Antarctica through which passes the earth's axis of rotation.
South Vietnam See: Vietnam.
South West Africa See: Namibia.
South Yemen See: Yemen.
Southampton (pop. 208,100), English seaport city, on the River Test, near the English Channel.
Southeast Asia, region of Asia south of the southernmost boundaries of China and India, including Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), defense treaty signed by Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and United States after France withdrew from Indochina in 1954.
Southern Baptist Convention, largest Baptist association.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), U.S. civil rights organization.
Southern Cross, or Crux, constellation visible in the Southern Hemisphere, defined by 4 stars in the shape of a cross.
Sovereignty, ultimate political power in a state.
Soviet (from Russian sovet, “council”), the fundamental political unit of the former USSR.
Soviet Union See: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Sow bug See: Wood louse.
Soybean (Glycine soja or Glycine max), annual legume that is one of the best sources of complete protein, as well as being a good source of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and virtually all other minerals, plus vitamins A, B, and C and lecithin.
Soyer brothers, family name of 2 U.S. artists.
Soyinka, Wole (1934– ), Nigerian writer, first African to win a Nobel Prize in literature (1986).
Spaak, Paul Henri (1899–1972), Belgium's first Socialist premier (1938–39, 1946, 1947–50), and deputy premier (1961–65).
Spaatz, Carl (1891–1974), U.S.
Space See: Space exploration.
On Feb. 20, 1962, John Glenn orbited the earth 3 times in the first Mercury craft to be boosted by an Atlas rocket. The next Soviet mission, in June 1963, involved 2 craft. Piloting Vostok 5, Valery Bykovsky set the 1-person endurance record with a 5-day mission; and piloting Vostok 6, Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman cosmonaut. Aleksei Leonov completed the first space walk in Mar. 1965…
Space shuttle See: Space exploration.
Space station See: Space exploration.
Space telescope See: Hubble Space Telescope.
Space-time, concept of the physical universe arising from Einstein's special theory of relativity.
Spacecraft See: Space exploration.
Spahn, Warren (1921– ), U.S. baseball player.
Spaight, Richard Dobbs (1758–1802), North Carolina legislator and a signer of the U.S.
Spain, country occupying about four-fifths of the Iberian Peninsula south of the Pyrenees in southwestern Europe. Including the Balearic and Canary islands, Spain covers 194,898 sq mi (504,783 sq km). Peninsular Spain is bounded on the north by the Bay of Biscay. On the northeast, the Pyrenees mark the borders with France and Andorra. On the west, Spain is bounded by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocea…
Spaniel, one of a large family of sporting dogs, probably descended from a Spanish dog, hence the name.
Spanish, Romance language spoken by about 341 million people, primarily in Spain and Latin America.
Spanish-American War (1898), fought between the United States and Spain, initially over the conduct of Spanish colonial authorities in Cuba. Strong anti-Spanish feeling was fomented in the United States by stories of the cruel treatment meted out to Cuban rebels and the hardships suffered by U.S. business interests. Though President Grover Cleveland took no action, his successor, President William…
Spanish Armada, naval fleet from Spain that attacked England in 1588.
Spanish bayonet, plant in the agave family, of the genus Yucca.
Spanish Civil War (1936–39), one of the most violent and bloody conflicts in Spanish history, between the liberal second republic and conservative forces in Spain.
Spanish fly, beetle found mainly in southern Europe.
Spanish Inquisition See: Inquisition; Torquemada, Tomás de.
Printing was introduced to Spain c. 1473. The first book to set forth the rules of a European language, Castilian Grammar, by Antonio de Nebrija, was published in 1492. Other prose works such as Diego de San Pedro's The Prison of Love (1492) and a book of chivalry, Tirant lo Blanch (1490) appeared at this time. A novel about chivalry, Amadis of Gaul, was the masterpiece of the period. La Ce…
Spanish Main, former name of the north Caribbean coast of South America, from Panama to the Orinoco River in Venezuela.
Spanish moss, or Florida moss, epiphyte (Tillandsia usneoides) that can be found festooning trees, such as oaks and cypresses, and even telephone poles and wires in the southeastern United States.
Spanish Succession, War of the (1701–14), conflict between France and the Grand Alliance of England, the Netherlands, Austria, and the smaller states of the Holy Roman Empire over control of the Spanish Empire.
Spark, Muriel (1918– ), Scottish writer best known for her witty, often satirical novels, including Memento Mori (1959), The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (1961; later a play and film), The Mandelbaum Gate (1965), Loitering with Intent (1981), Curiculum Vitae (1992), and Reality and Dreams (1996).
Sparks, Jared (1789–1866), U.S. historian best known for Writings of George Washington (12 vols., 1834–37).
Sparrow, gregarious, seed-eating bird of the subfamily Passerinae of the weaver-bird family.
Sparrowhawk, name for small birds of prey (genus Accipiter).
Sparta, or Lacedaemon, city of ancient Greece, capital of Laconia in the Peloponnesus, on the Eurotas River.
Spartacus (d.71 B.C.), leader of the Gladiators' War, a slave revolt against ancient Rome (73–71 B.C.).
Spastic paralysis, form of paralysis due to disease of the brain (e.g., stroke) or spinal cord (e.g., multiple sclerosis), in which the affected muscles are in a state of constantly increased tone (or resting contraction).
Speaker, in U.S. government, officer presiding in the U.S.
Speaker, Tristram E. (1888–1958), U.S. baseball player.
Spear, weapon on which a point tops a long shank.
Spearfishing, sport in which fish are caught underwater with the use of spears.
Spearmint, herb in the mint family.
Special education, instruction designed for the special needs of certain students, both gifted and handicapped.
Special effects, in cinema, technique developed to enhance visual illusion, especially important in “disaster movies” and ambitious science fiction films, such as Star Wars.
Special Olympics, international sporting program designed for participation by mentally retarded people.
Species See: Classification.
Specific heat, warmth required to raise the temperature of 1 kg (2.2 lb) of a substance through 1 kelvin; measured by calorimetry.
Spectrometer, tool that analyzes an object through a spectrum of light.
Spectrum, array of light in the form of different colors produced when a ray of plain white light passes through a prism by a process known as dispersion.
Speculation, practice of entering into business transactions in order to make a quick profit from an anticipated substantial price fluctuation.
Speech and speech disorders, communication through spoken words and the impairments of this ability. Speech can be subdivided into conception, or formulation, and production, or phonation and articulation. Speech development in children starts with associating sounds with persons and objects, comprehension usually predating vocalization by some months. Nouns are developed first, often with 1 or 2 …
Speech therapy, detection and correction of speech problems.
Speed See: Methamphetamine.
Speed reading, mastery of reading material in terms of both speed and comprehension.
Speedometer, instrument for indicating the speed of a motor vehicle.
Speedwriting, writing method that uses the letters of the alphabet in a shortened form.
Speer, Albert (1905–81), German architect and Nazi leader.
Speleology, scientific study of caves.
Spelling, often referred to as orthography, manner in which letters represent words in writing.
Spencer, Anna Garlin (1851–1931), U.S. religious and political leader, educator, and author, especially in the field of women's rights.
Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903), English philosopher, social theorist, and early evolutionist.
Spender, Sir Stephen Harold (1909–95), English poet and critic, coeditor of the literary magazine Encounter (1953–65).
Spenser, Edmund (1552?–99), English poet.
Sperm See: Reproduction.
Sperm whale, family of toothed whales, with 2 species: the cachalot (Physeter catodon) and pigmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps).
Sperry, Elmer Ambrose (1860–1930), U.S. inventor and manufacturer.
Sphagnum moss See: Peat moss.
Sphalerite, also called zinc blende, zinc ore and sulfur ore.
Sphere, surface produced by the rotation of a circle through 180° about one of its diameters.
Sphinx, mythical monster of the ancient Middle East, in Egypt portrayed as a lion with a human head and used as a symbol of the pharaoh.
Sphinx moth See: Hawk moth.
Spice, one of a large number of aromatic plant products that have a distinctive flavor or aroma and are used to season food.
Spider, any of an order (Araneida) of arachnids, with a body of 2 main parts, 4 pairs of legs, and 4 pairs of eyes.
Spider monkey, slender, pot-bellied monkey found in the forests of central and northern South America.
Spiderwort, or Job's tears, family of plants found in the tropical and temperate Americas and cultivated as house plants.
Spielberg, Steven (1947– ), U.S. film director, writer, and producer.
Spikenard, flowering plant in the Valerianaeceae family (Nardostachys jatamansi) or in the ginseng family (Aralia racemosa).
Spina bifida, congenital deformity in which a fissure in the lower part of the spine allows the spinal membranes to protrude.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), leafy annual plant widely cultivated as an edible vegetable.
Spinal cord and spinal nerves, that part of the central nervous system contained within the spinal column and extending from the skull to the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra; the nerve structures and nerve pathways within the vertebral canal, extending from the skull opening to the second lumbar vertebra.
Spinal tap, or lumbar puncture, procedure to remove cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the lumbar spinal canal using a fine needle.
Spine, spinal column orvertebral cord, vertical structure of bone, nerves and nerve fibers, ligaments, and cartilage that act as a skeletal support and transmission center for the nervous system in vertebrate animals.
Spinning, craft of twisting together fibers from a mass to form strong, continuous thread suitable for weaving. The earliest method was merely to roll the fibers between hand and thigh. Later 2 sticks were used: the distaff to hold the bundle of fibers, and a spindle to twist and wind the yarn. Mechanization began with the spinning wheel, which was invented in India and spread to Europe by the 14t…
Spinoza, Baruch, or Benedict de (1632–77), Dutch philosopher who held that God is nature or all that is, an interpretation that brought him expulsion from the Amsterdam Jewish community.
Spiny anteater See: Echidna.
Spiraea, any of several shrubs with tall clusters of pink or white flowers.
Spirit of '76, popular image of the American Revolution, depicted in a painting by Archibald M.
Spiritual, form of emotional, often sorrowful, religious folk song using syncopation, a variety of rhythms, and the pentatonic scale (5 whole tones).
Spiritualism, belief in the survival of the human personality after death and its ability to communicate with those left behind, usually through a medium.
Spitz, family of dogs, distinguished by their thick, long coats, curly tails, and pointed ears.
Spleen, spongy vascular organ between the stomach and diaphragm on the left side of the abdomen.
Split (pop. 189,400), city in Croatia, in the southwestern region of Dalmatia on the Adriatic Sea; known as Spalato in Italian.
Spock, Benjamin McLane (1903–98), known as “Dr.
Spode, British family of potters.
Spoils system, use of appointments to public offices to reward supporters of a victorious political party.
Spokane (pop. 173,000), city in Washington state, located on the Spokane River, about 15 mi (24 km) west of the Idaho border.
Sponge, primitive animal of both marine and fresh water.
Spontaneous combustion, or spontaneous ignition, phenomenon in which material suddenly bursts into flame without apparent cause but resulting from a slow build-up of heat.
Spontaneous generation, or abiogenesis, theory that living creatures can arise from nonliving matter.
Spoonbill, bird in the ibis family.
Spore, minute single- or multicelled body produced during the process of reproduction of many plants, particularly bacteria, algae and fungi, and some protozoa.
Sports, organized athletic events in which people are either participants or spectators.
Sports medicine, area of medical practice based on the effects of sports on the human body.
Spot, fish in the croaker family.
Spotted fever, Rocky Mountain, see: Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Spotted Tail (Sioux: Sinte-galeshka; 1823?–81), Brulé Sioux leader.
Sprague, Frank Julian (1857–1934), U.S. inventor and engineer of the high-speed electric elevator and the electric railroad system, including that now used in the New York City subway.
Sprain, injury to a ligament (which connects bone to bone in a joint). The symptoms are rapid swelling and inflammation and some initial pain and stiffness around a joint. Swelling and pain seem worse 24 to 48 hours after injury occurs. Discoloration and limitation in motion and function may also take place. A ligament is like a rope that, when stretched beyond resting length, is susceptible to in…
Sprat (Clupea sprattus), small marine food fish of the herring family native to coastal waters of Europe.
Spring, mechanical device that exhibits elasticity according to Hooke's Law.
Spring, in geology, naturally occurring flow of water from the ground.
Spring beauty, wild flowers in the purslane family.
Springbok, animal in the cattle family, also called springbuck.
Springer spaniel See: Spaniel.
Springfield (pop. 189,550), capital of Illinois.
Springfield (pop. 529,519), city in Massachusetts.
Springfield (pop. 240,593), city in southwestern Missouri, the seat of Greene County.
Springfield (pop. 70,487), city in west-central Ohio, on the Mad River about 45 mi (72.5 km) west of Columbus.
Springhare, or springhaas (Pedetes capensis), small, nocturnal, herbivorous rodent of eastern and southern Africa, resembling a rabbit with a long tail but belonging to the family Pedetidae.
Springsteen, Bruce (1949– ), U.S. rock singer, songwriter, and guitarist, known as “The Boss.” He has performed with his E Street Band since the early 1970s, recording such albums as Born to Run (1975, Born in the U.S.A. (1984), which sold 15 million copies, Human Touch (1992), and The Ghost of Tom Joad (1995).
Spruance, Raymond Ames (1886–1969), U.S. naval officer known for victories in the Pacific theater during World War II under the command of Admiral Chester W.
Spruce, evergreen coniferous tree of the genus Picea, with a conical form.
Spruce budworm, destructive insect in the Tortricidae family.
Spurge family, group of plants that include herbs, shrubs, and trees that grow mainly in tropical climates throughout the world.
Sputnik, series of unmanned satellites launched by the Soviet Union.
Squanto (d.1622), Native American of the Pawtuxet tribe, who befriended the newly arrived settlers of the Plymouth colony, acting as their interpreter in dealing with the powerful chief Massasoit and teaching them how to grown corn.
Square dancing, popular, lively U.S. folk dance in which 4 couples formed in a square carry out steps and formations under the direction of a caller.
Square Deal, policy of Theodore Roosevelt when, as presidential candidate (1912), he sought to reconcile the demands of both workers and industrialists.
Squash, any of several edible plants in the Cucurbitaceae family.
Squash, game played on a 4-walled court with a small, hard-rubber ball and 27-in (68-cm) rackets.
Squeteague See: Weakfish.
Squid, shell-less cephalopod mollusk, order Teuthoidea.
Squill, plant in the lily family.
Squire See: Knights and knighthood.
Squirrel, member of one of the largest families, Sciuridae, of rodents.
Squirrel monkey, primate of the New World monkey family, Cebidae.
Sri Lanka, formerly Ceylon, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, independent island republic in the Indian Ocean. Sri Lanka is separated from southeastern India by the Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait, and Adam's Bridge, a 30-mi (48-km)-chain of shoals. With an area of 24,879 sq mi (64,454 sq km), Sri Lanka extends 270 mi (435 km) north to south and 140 mi (225 km) east to …
Staël, Madame de (Anne Louise Germaine Necker; 1766–1817), French-Swiss novelist and critic, celebrated personality, and liberal opponent of Napoleon I's regime.
Stafford, Jean (1915–79), U.S. author noted for her sensitive, well-crafted novels and short stories.
Staffordshire bull terrier, also known as pit bull terrier, breed of dog.
Stag beetle, also called pinching bug, beetle in the Lucanidae family.
Stained glass, pieces of colored glass held in place by a framework usually of lead strips, to form patterns or pictures in a window. The earliest Western windows date from the 5th century, but the art reached its highest development in the period of Gothic architecture (1150–1500): The series of windows made (1200–40) for the cathedral at Chartres is a well-known example. Huge circu…
Stainless steel, corrosion-resistant steel containing more than 10% chromium, little carbon, and often nickel and other metals.
Stalactite, and stalagmite, rocky structures found in limestone caves.
Stalin, Joseph (Josif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; 1879–1953), ruler of the Soviet Union from 1924 until his death. A Georgian village shoemaker's son intended for the priesthood, he joined the Georgian Social Democratic Party in 1901. In 1912 V. I. Lenin placed him on the Bolshevik central committee. (Around this time he took the name Stalin, “man of steel.”) After the…
Stalingrad See: Volgograd.
Stalingrad, Battle of, decisive engagement in World War II, fought in the vicinity of Stalingrad (since 1961, Volgograd) from Aug. 1942 to Feb. 1943.
Stalino See: Donetsk.
Stamford (pop. 102,466), U.S. city in Connecticut.
Stamp Act (1765), first direct tax imposed by the English Parliament on the 13 North American colonies.
Stamp collecting, or philately, popular worldwide hobby.
Stamp weed See: Indian mallow.
Standard of living, statistical measure that attempts to rate the quality of life in a nation or a group in terms of its level of consumption of food, clothing, and other basic goods and services, including transportation, education, and medical care.
Standard & Poor's indexes, U.S. stock market statistics prepared by the Standard & Poor's Corporation.
Standard schnauzer, breed of dog originally from Bavaria, Germany, in the 15th century.
Standard time, time kept in the time zones of the world.
Standish, Miles (15847–1656), English passenger on the Mayflower and colonist.
Stanford-Binet test, adaptation of the Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Tests introduced by Lewis Madison Terman (1916; 2d revision, 1937), and used primarily to determine the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of children.
Stanford University, leading U.S. educational and research center.
Stanislavski, Konstantin (Konstantin Sergeyevich Alekseyev; 1863–1938), Russian-born stage director, teacher, and author.
Stanley brothers, U.S. inventors and twins; Francis Edgar Stanley (1849–1918) and Freeland Oscar Stanley (1849–1940).
Stanley Cup, trophy presented annually to the winner of the National Hockey League (NHL) postseason playoffs.
Stanley and Livingstone, British explorers in Afica. David Livingstone (1813–73) traveled to southern Africa as a missionary and remained on the continent for the rest of his life. His interest in geography ignited a coast-to-coast journey in which he followed the Zambezi River (1853–56). Victoria Falls was named by him, the first European to see it (1855). He met Henry Morton Stanle…
Stanton, Edwin McMasters (1814–69), U.S. politician, secretary of war during the Civil War (1862–68), and important ally of the Radical Republicans during Reconstruction.
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady (1815–1902), U.S.abolitionist and feminist.
Staphylococcus, bacterium responsible for numerous skin, soft tissue, and bone infections, less often causing septicemia, pneumonia, bacterial endocarditis, and enterocolitis.
Star, large incandescent ball of gases held together by its own gravity. The sun is a fairly normal star in its composition, parameters, and color. It is believed that stars originate as condensations out of interstellar matter. In certain circumstances a protostar will form, slowly contracting under its own gravity, part of the energy from this contraction being radiated, the remainder heating up…
Star-of-Bethlehem, flower in the lily family.
Star Chamber, in early English history, meeting room for the King's advisors.
Star of David, known also as Shield of David, symbol of Judaism and the state of Israel.
Star-spangled Banner, U.S. national anthem, officially adopted by an act of Congress in 1931.
Star Wars See: Strategic Defense Initiative.
Starbuck Island, South Pacific island.
Starch, white, odorless carbohydrate powder, essential to both plants and animals as a source of energy (it is converted to glucose when needed).
Starfish, member of a class, Asteroidea, of star-shaped marine echinoderms, with 5-fold symmetry.
Stark, Johannes (1874–1957), German physicist who received the Nobel Prize (1919) for his discovery that light was uniquely affected by an electrical field, in that the field would cause spectral lines to split.
Stark, John (1728–1822), American Revolutionary soldier.
Starling, member of a family, Sturnidae, of more than 100 species of songbirds.
Starr, Belle (1848–89), U.S. outlaw.
Starr, Ringo See: Beatles.
Starter, device that causes the crankshaft in an engine to turn and operate.
State government, body that administers laws and regulations within a state.
State press, system of publishing owned and controlled by a government or dominant political party.
Staten Island, in New York Harbor, 5 mi (8 km) southwest of the Battery tip of Manhattan Island.
States' rights, power allowed by the U.S.
Static, interference in a radio or television signal caused by disturbance in the electrical charge of the receiver.
Statics, branch of mechanics dealing with systems in equilibrium, i.e., those in which all forces are balanced and there is no motion.
Statistics, branch of mathematics that collects, tabulates, and analyzes data by a numerical system which, in turn, is used to make predictions and projections about situations that are uncertain.
Statuary Hall, domed chamber in the U.S.
Statue of Liberty, colossal bronze female figure rising more than 300 ft (91 m) above the sea, on Liberty Island in New York Harbor.
Statue of Liberty National Monument, on New York City's Ellis and Liberty islands, 58-acre (23 ha) monument.
Statute of limitations, law that prevents suits from being filed after a certain period has elapsed.
STD See: Venereal disease.
Steam engine, first important heat engine, supplying the power that made the Industrial Revolution possible. It was the principal power source for industry and transport (notably railroad locomotives and steamships) until the 20th-century advent of steam turbines and internal-combustion engines. The steam engine is an external-combustion engine, the steam being raised in a boiler heated by a furna…
Steamboat, any steam-powered sailing vessel.
Stearic acid, or octadecanoic acid, common fatty acid derived from animal or vegetable fats.
Steatite See: Soapstone.
Steel, alloy of iron and up to 1.7% carbon, with small amounts of manganese, phosphorous, sulfur, and silicon. These are termed carbon steels; those with other metals are termed alloy steels—low-alloy steels if they have less than 5% of the alloying metal, high-alloy steels if more than 5%. Carbon steels are far stronger than iron, and their properties can be tailored t…
Steele, Sir Richard (1672–1729), Irish-born English essayist, playwright, and poet.
Steelworkers of America, United (USWA), large U.S. labor union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) and consisting mainly of workers in the steel, iron, metal, aluminum, and chemical industries.
Steen, Jan (c.1626–79), Dutch painter, a master of color and facial expressions.
Steenbok, or steinbok, small African antelope belonging to the family Bovidae.
Steeplechasing, horse-racing over a course with such obstacles as fences, hedges, and water.
Steffens, Lincoln (1866–1936), U.S. writer, lecturer, and political critic.
Stegosaurus See: Dinosaur.
Steichen, Edward (1879–1973), U.S. photographer known for his sharp, realistic portraits.
Stein, Gertrude (1874–1946), U.S. writer who lived in Paris from 1903.
Steinbeck, John (1902–68), U.S. author who came to the fore in the 1930s with his novels about poverty and social injustice.
Steinberger, Jack (1921– ), U.S. physicist.
Steinbok See: Steenbok.
Steinem, Gloria (1934– ), U.S feminist and writer.
Steiner, Rudolf (1861–1925), Austrian founder of anthroposophy, an attempt to recapture spiritual realities ignored by modern man.
Steinmetz, Charles Proteus (1865–1923), German-born U.S. mathematician, electrical engineer, and politician.
Steinway, U.S. family of piano manufacturers.
Stella, Frank (1936– ), U.S. painter.
Stem, part of a plant from which the leaves and flowers sprout.
Stendhal (Marie Henri Beyle; 1783–1842), French pioneer of the psychological novel.
Stengel, Casey (c.1890–1975), U.S. baseball manager.
Stephen, name of 9 popes.
Stephen (c.1097–1154), king of England (1135–54).
Stephens, Alexander Hamilton (1812–83), vice president of the Confederate States of America (1861–65).
Stephenson, British family of inventors and railroad engineers.
Steppe, extensive temperate grasslands of Europe and Asia (equivalent to the North American prairies and South American pampas).
Stereoscope, optical instrument that stimulates binocular vision by presenting slightly different pictures to the 2 eyes so that an apparently 3-dimensional image is produced.
Stereotyping, in printing, process in which a metal plate is made from a mold of typeface or art.