Éire See: Ireland.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Eilat to ERA
Ε pluribus unum (“out of many, one”), Latin motto referring to the unification of the original 13 American colonies.
Eilat See: Elat.
Einstein, Albert (1879–1955), German-born U.S. physicist, one of the greatest scientific figures. He received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1921 for his services to theoretical physics, especially the discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. While still a youth he taught himself calculus and science. In 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich, where he traine…
Einstein theory See: Relativity.
Einsteinium, chemical element, symbol Es; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Einthoven, Willem (1860–1927), Dutch physiologist, awarded the 1924 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine for his invention of, and investigation of heart action with, the electrocardiograph.
Eisenhower, Dwight David (1890–1969), 34th president of the United States, nicknamed “Ike”. Eisenhower's two terms in office are remembered as peaceful years, because one of his first official acts was to move for an end to the unpopular Korean War. They were also, however, tense years of Cold War with the communist bloc. A year after graduating from high school in 1909…
Eisenstaedt, Alfred (1898–95), pioneering U.S. photojournalism He worked for Life magazine for over 30 years.
Eisenstein, Sergei Mikhailovich (1898–1948), Soviet film director.
EKG See: Electrocardiogram.
El Aaiun, also Aiun (pop. 25,000), Laayoune, or Ayun, city in Western Sahara (territory in northwest Africa occupied by Morocco), about 10 mi (16 km) from the Atlantic Ocean.
El Alamein, Egyptian city 65 mi (105 km) east of Alexandria.
El Dorado (Spanish, “the gilded one”), legendary South American king who was reputed to cover himself with gold dust at festivals and then, as a sacrifice, wash it off in a lake into which his subjects also threw gold; also, legendary kingdom on the Amazon River, sought for its reputed wealth by Spanish explorers of the 16th century.
El Greco See: Greco, El.
El Misti, 19,101-ft (5,822-m) dormant volcano located in the Western Cordillera mountain range in Peru.
El Niño, current that travels south along the Pacific coasts of Peru and Ecuador approximately every 4 years, warming the normally cold waters.
El Paso (pop. 543,800), city in western Texas and the seat of El Paso County.
El Salvador, republic in Central America, bordered by Guatemala to the west, Honduras to the north and east, and the Pacific Ocean to the south. El Salvador is the only country in Central America with no Caribbean coastline. Two parallel mountain ridges cross the country from east to west enclosing generally fertile plateaus and valleys. The Lempa River (200 mi/322 km), Central America's la…
Eland, largest antelope (6 ft/180 cm), belonging to the family Bovidae, with spiral horns and a short mane.
Elat, or Eilat (pop. 19,600), town at the southern tip of Israel on the Gulf of Aqaba.
Elba, Italian island in the Mediterranean, 6 mi (9.7 km) off the west coast of central Italy.
Elbe River, major river in central Europe.
Elder, or elderberry, tree or shrub (genus Sambucus) of the honeysuckle family, native to temperate and subtropical regions.
Elderberry See: Elder.
Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122–1204), daughter and heir of William X, duke of Aquitaine; queen consort first to Louis VII of trance (marriage annulled 1152) and then to Henry II of England.
Elecampane (Inula helenium), large coarse herb with yellow flowers, native to Europe and Asia as far east as the Himalayas.
Election, selection of public officeholders by vote. Elections may be direct or indirect. In direct elections the voters themselves choose among the candidates for office or proposals in a referendum. In indirect elections voters choose delegates who cast the final and decisive votes. A well-known example of this process is the American electoral college, the body of delegates that, theoretically,…
Election campaign, period before an election when candidates and political parties carry out actions to win votes.
Electoral college, body elected by popular vote that in turn elects the president and vice president of the United States. The college was conceived as a compromise between direct popular elections and rule by appointment or inheritance. The voters of each state choose electors (whose names often do not appear on the ballot) by indicating their choice for president and vice president. The winning …
Electoral Commission, group of 15 members (5 senators, 5 representatives, 5 Supreme Court justices) created by Congress in 1877 to determine the winner of the presidential election of 1876.
Electra, in Greek mythology, daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, and the older sister of Orestes.
Electra complex, in psychoanalysis, the attraction of a daughter to her father, named for Electra, daughter of Agamemnon in Greek mythology.
Electric arc, area of intense light and heat produced by the passage of electricity across a small gap between 2 electrodes.
Electric battery See: Battery.
Electric car, automobile powered by electricity.
Electric circuit, path followed by an electric current.
Electric current, flow of electric charges.
Electric eel (Electrophorus electricus), eellike species of fish of the family Electrophoridae that can produce an electric discharge, found in northern South America.
Electric eye, or photoelectric cell, electronic device either producing current or allowing current to flow when light shines on it, used for controlling such devices as lights and burglar alarms, and for measuring light for photographic and video equipment.
Electric field, field that surrounds an electric charge and exerts force on any nearby electric charges.
Electric fish, any of various fishes having the ability to generate electric currents for stunning prey or enemies or for locating nearby objects.
Electric furnace, furnace powered by electricity and used for melting, alloying, and heat-treating steel alloys and for manufacturing high-speed tools.
Electric fuse See: Fuse.
Electric generator, or dynamo, machine producing electricity most often by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.
Electric heating See: Heating.
Electric induction See: Induction, electric.
Electric light, device using electric energy to produce visible light.
Electric measurement, measurable, observable effects (heat, force, magnetism) of electric current.
Electric meter, instrument for measuring the consumption of electricity.
Electric motor, machine for converting electric energy into mechanical energy.
Electric power, electric energy used for work, measured in units called watts. Electric power plants create mechanical energy that is converted via a generator into electricity. Fossil-fueled steam electric power plants produce electricity by burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas), and hydroelectric power plants use the energy of falling water. Nuclear power plants use heat produced by nucl…
Electric railroad, fast, quiet, non-polluting, electrically powered, high-speed railway system including passenger and freight trains, subways, and elevated systems.
Electric ray See: Torpedo.
Electric shock See: Shock treatment.
Electric switch, device used to open and close an electric circuit.
Electric train See: Electric railroad.
Electric wiring, system of wires that carries electric current through a building.
Electrical engineering See: Engineering.
Electricity, phenomenon of charged subatomic particles at rest or in motion. Electricity provides a highly versatile form of energy. Electric charge is an inherent property of matter. Electrons carry a negative charge and protons carry a positive charge. For each electron in the atom, there is normally 1 proton. When this balance is disturbed, a net charge is left on an object; the study of such i…
Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), measurements of the wave patterns produced by the electrical currents generated by the contractions of the heart muscles.
Electrochemistry, branch of physical chemistry dealing with the effect of electricity on chemical charge and the interconversion of electrical and chemical energy.
Electrocution, usually fatal effect of passing a high-energy electrical current through a body.
Electrode, electric conductor that supplies current.
Electroencephalograph, instrument for recording the brain's electrical activity using several small electrodes on the scalp. Its results are produced in the form of an electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG is a convenient method for the investigation of brain disturbances and disease (benign and malignant tumors, disturbances in blood vessels, epilepsy, inflammation, metabolic changes). The G…
Electrolysis, process of changing the chemical composition of a conducting material (electrolyte) by sending an electric current through it.
Electrolyte, electrical conductor in which the current is in the form of ions—atoms with an electric charge—rather than free electrons, as is the case with a wire.
Electromagnet, device that produces a temporary magnetic field when an electric current flows through it.
Electromagnetic force See: Grand unified theories.
Electromagnetic waves, patterns of electric and magnetic force.
Electromagnetism, in physics, relation between electricity and magnetism based on the facts that electric currents produce magnetic fields and magnetic fields produce electric fields.
Electromotive force (emf), loosely, voltage produced by a battery generator or other source of electricity; more precisely, unit of measure of electrical energy per unit of electricity from a generator.
Electromotive series, or electromechanical series, ranking of metals according to their tendency to lose electrons in chemical reactions.
Electron, elementary particle circling the nucleus of an atom.
Electron gun, device that produces and aims a beam of electrons to produce a visual pattern on a phosphorescent screen.
Electron microscope, microscope that uses beams of electrons to produce extremely high magnifications. The optical microscope cannot produce images of objects smaller than the wavelength of the light used. But when the French physicist Victor De Broglie discovered in 1924 that electrons could behave like waves, it became apparent that streams of electrons could be manipulated to produce magnified …
Electron tube, device used for amplifying electrical signals or currents.
Electronic game, game generally featuring lights and sounds on a screen, controlled by microprocessors or tiny computers.
Electronic music, music composed of sounds and manipulated, created solely on electronic equipment.
Electronics, applied science dealing with the development and behavior of devices in which the motion of electrons is controlled. It covers the behavior of electrons in gases, vacuums, conductors, and semiconductors. Its theoretical basis lies in the principles of electromagnetism and solid-state physics discovered in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Electronics began to grow in the 1920s w…
Electrophoresis, process by which components of large biological molecules are separated by being subjected to electric fields.
Electroplating, process by which a metal coating is produced by the action of an electric current.
Electroscope, instrument for detecting electrostatic charge.
Electrostatic precipitator, device that removes smoke and other particles from industrial fumes.
Electrotyping, method of creating reproductions of type, engravings, or etchings.
Elegy, in classical poetry, lyric poem of alternate 2-line stanzas written in a distinctive meter.
Element, in chemistry, substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by normal chemical processes. Elements are generally mixtures of different isotopes. The elements are classified by physical properties as metals, metalloids, and nonmetals, and by chemical properties and atomic structure according to the periodic table. Most elements exhibit allotropy (more than one elemental form…
Element 104 (unnilquadium), chemical element, symbol (Unq); for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Element 105, chemical element; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Element 106, chemical element; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Element 107, chemical element; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Element 108, chemical element; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Element 109, chemical element; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Element 110, chemical element; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Elementary school, also known as grade school or grammar school, first school in the normal sequence of public education, consisting of the first 6 to 8 grades. Many school systems designate the 7th and 8th grades as a separate junior high school. The first effort to legislate for education in America was in Massachusetts in the 1640s, when parents and masters of apprentices were directed to take …
Elephant, largest living land animal, of which there are 2 species, the African (Loxodonta africand) and the Indian (Elephas maxima). The African elephant is the larger of the 2, standing up to 111/2 ft (3.5 m) and weighing 6 tons (5,400 kg). It has larger ears and tusks, a sloping forehead and 2 “lips” at the end of the trunk, compared with the Indian elephant's 1 “lip…
Elephant bird, extinct, flightless bird (genus Aepyornis) of Madagascar.
Elephant's ear, plant of the arum family, especially Colocasia antiquorum, grown for its large ornamental leaves, which spring from a rhizome (under-ground stem).
Elephantiasis, chronic disease characterized by gross thickening of the skin or swelling of the lower limbs and external genital organs.
Eleusinian mysteries, secret religious rites in ancient Greece.
Elevator, device that transports people or goods from one floor to another in a building.
Eleventh Amendment See: Constitution of the United States.
Elgar, Sir Edward William (1857–1934), English composer.
Elgin Marbles, ancient sculpture (mostly from the Acropolis) that Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin and British envoy at Constantinople (1799–1802) shipped from Athens, Greece (then a Turkish possession), to London.
Elhuyar, Fausto and Juan José de See: Tungsten.
Elijah, or Elias (9th century B.C.), Hebrew prophet who, according to the Book of Kings of the Old Testament, resisted pagan idol worship during the reign of Israel's King Ahab.
Elijah Muhammad See: Muhammad, Elijah.
Eliot, Charles William (1834–1926), U.S. educator, president of Harvard University from 1869–1909 and editor of the original Harvard Classics series.
Eliot, George (Mary Ann Evans; 1819–80), English novelist.
Eliot, John (1604–90), Puritan clergyman.
Eliot, T(homas) S(tearns) (1888–1965), U.S.-born poet, dramatist, and critic.
Elisha (9th century B.C.), Hebrew prophet, disciple of and successor to Elijah, whose life is described in II Kings of the Old Testament.
Elixir, liquor sought by alchemists of the Middle Ages for turning metals into gold or prolonging life.
Elizabeth, name of 2 queens of England. Elizabeth I (1533–1603) was queen of England and Ireland (1558–1603) and the last Tudor monarch. A daughter of Henry VIII, who had broken with the Catholic Church to marry Anne Boleyn, her mother, her initial task as queen was to reestablish her supremacy over the English Church after the reign of her Catholic sister, Mary I. The defeat by her …
Elizabeth (1709–62), empress of Russia (1741–62), daughter of Peter the Great.
Elizabeth (pop. 106,201), city in northeastern New Jersey, seat of Union County.
Elizabeth, Queen Mother of England See: George.
Elizabeth, Saint, mother of St.
Elizabethan Age See: Elizabeth.
Elk, large member of the deer family.
Ellery, William (1727–1820), U.S. political leader.
Ellesmere Island, Canadian Arctic island off northwest Greenland, occupying about 80,000 sq mi (207,200 sqkm) and consisting of ice-capped plateaus and mountains flanked by a coastline pierced by deep fjords.
Ellice Islands See: Tuvalu.
Ellington, Duke (Edward Kennedy Ellington; 1899–1974), U.S. composer, pianist, and orchestra leader, one of the giants of jazz music.
Ellipse, geometrical figure shaped like a circle viewed at an angle.
Ellis, (Henry) Havelock (1859–1939), British writer known for his studies of human sexual behavior and psychology.
Ellis Island, island of about 27 acres (10.9 hectares) in upper New York Bay, within the boundaries of New York City.
Ellison, Ralph Waldo (1914–94), African-American writer.
Ellsworth, Lincoln (1880–1951), U.S. explorer and scientist.
Ellsworth, Oliver (1745–1807), chief justice of the U.S.
Elm, deciduous tree (genus Ulmus) common to North America, Europe, and parts of Asia.
Elman, Mischa (1891–1967), Russian-born U.S. violinist.
Elodea, any of several underwater plants of the genus Elodea, some living in salt water, others in fresh water.
Elohim, most common name for God used in the Old Testament.
Elzevir, family of Dutch printers and publishers.
Emancipation Proclamation, decree issued by President Abraham Lincoln on Jan. 1, 1863, abolishing slavery in the rebelling Confederate states.
Embalming, artificial process by which a corpse is prevented, at least temporarily, from decomposing.
Embargo, government detention of ships to prevent their departure from a port.
Embargo act, in U.S. history, statute prohibiting trade with other nations, usually for diplomatic reasons.
Embezzlement, crime involving someone legally entrusted with property belonging to another who takes it for personal use.
Embolism, presence of substances other than liquid blood in the blood circulation, causing obstruction in arteries or interfering with the pumping of the heart.
Embossing, mechanical reproduction, by pressure, of designs and patterns in relief on various materials, such as metal, leather, fabrics, cardboard, and paper.
Embroidery, decorations on fabric produced by stitching with a needle and colored thread.
Embryo, name for the young of plants or animals at the earliest stage of development, after fertilization. In seed-bearing plants, the term applies to the stage before the plant emerges from its seed. In egg-laying animals, it refers to the period before hatching. In mammals, the embryonic stage lasts until the creature's basic body shape and organs are formed, at which point it is called a…
Embryology, study of the development of embryos of animals and humans, based on anatomical specimens of embryos at different periods of gestation, obtained from animals or from human abortion.
Emerald, valuable green gemstone, a variety of the mineral beryl.
Emerald Isle, poetic name for Ireland, probably based on the predominant green color of the Irish landscape.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82), U.S. philosophical essayist, poet, and lecturer.
Emery, naturally occurring impure form of corundum containing iron oxides and other minerals.
Emetic, substance used to induce vomiting.
Emin Pasha (Eduard Schnitzer; 1840–92), physician and explorer.
Eminent domain, in the United States, government's inherent right to take private property for public use without the owner's consent.
Emmet, Daniel Decatur (1815–1904), U.S. songwriter and minstrel show entertainer.
Emotion, state of both body and mind consisting of a subjective feeling that is either pleasant or unpleasant but never neutral, accompanied by expressive behavior or posture and by physiological changes.
Empedocles (c.495–c.435 B.C.), Greek philosopher who lived in Sicily.
Emphysema, disease marked by the enlargement of the air sacs in the lungs, which interferes with breathing.
Empire State Building, office building in New York City.
Empire style, French neoclassical style in architecture, interior decoration, and furniture design that peaked during the Napoleonic empire (1804–14).
Empiricism, philosophical theory that regards experience, mental or physical, as the only source of knowledge.
Employee benefits See: Pension; Profit sharing.
Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP), program allowing workers to own part of the stock in a company.
Employment agencies, privately or publicly owned organizations that help workers find employment and employers to find workers.
Employment Service, United States, agency of the U.S.
Emu, flightless, ostrichlike bird (Dromiceius novaehollandiae) of Australia, having long, coarse feathers that hide its wings.
Emulsion, preparation of minute drops of one liquid dispersed evenly throughout another liquid. Each liquid is called a phase. One phase is usually water or an aqueous solution, and the other phase is usually an oil or other immiscible liquid. An emulsion consisting of oil droplets dispersed in water, called an oil-in-water emulsion, has properties like those of water, although an oil-in-water emu…
Enabling act, legislation giving special powers to individuals or groups.
Enamel, vitreous (glasslike) glaze fused on metal for decoration and protection.
Encephalitis, inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.
Encephalograph See: Electroencephalograph.
Encomienda, labor system imposed by the Spanish in South America in the 16th century.
Encounter group See: Sensitivity training.
Encyclical, letter from the Pope to the bishops of the Roman Catholic Church.
Encyclopedia, reference work that summarizes all knowledge or a particular branch of knowledge in a series of articles arranged alphabetically or by subject.
Endangered species See: Wildlife conservation.
Endecott, John (c.1589–1665), governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Enderby Land, western region of Antarctica extending from Ice Bay to Edward VIII Bay.
Enders, John Franklin (1897–1985), U.S. microbiologist who shared the 1954 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine with F.C.
Endive, leafy plant (Cichorium endivia) of the composite family, of the same genus as chicory.
Endocrine gland See: Gland; Hormone.
Endocrine system, ductless glands that secrete chemicals called hormones, which regulate body functions.
Endometriosis, condition in which tissue resembling the mucous membrane of the uterus—the endometrium—is present abnormally in various locations in the pelvic cavity.
Endorphins, proteins produced by the pituitary gland (at the base of the brain) inhibiting certain brain cells from transmitting impulses and thereby blocking or reducing the sensation of pain.
Endymion, in Greek mythology, youthful lover of the goddess Selene.
Energy, in physics, the capacity to do work. There are various forms of energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion, and is equal to one-half the mass of the moving body multiplied by the square of its velocity (1/2mv3). Potential energy is the energy a body possesses by virtue of its position. A body raised to a certain height, h, for example, has a potential energy equal to its mass multiplie…
Energy supply, total amount of energy available, from all sources, including fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas), water power, nuclear energy, solar energy, wind power, etc.
Enewetak, or Eniwetok, atoll in the central Pacific Ocean, at the northwestern end of the Marshall Islands, a U.S.
Engels, Friedrich (1820–95), German socialist, philosopher, and associate of Karl Marx, with whom he founded modern communism. Born into a wealthy family, he went to England in 1842 to work in his father's textile mill. There he wrote his first major work, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 (published 1845). Engels became a socialist as a result of his exposure to …
Engine, machine that transforms energy into useful mechanical work. The most familiar engines are heat engines, which transform heat energy, obtained by burning fuel, into a force that turns wheels, propellers, turbines, and so on. Other types of engines include hydroelectric plants, which use the energy of falling water to spin rotors that generate electricity, and windmills, which harness the en…
Engine analyzer, instrument that analyzes the performance of an automobile engine.
Engineering, applied science devoted to the design and construction of machinery and transportation and communications networks.
Engineers, Army Corps of, technical and combatant corps of the U.S. army, performing tasks of civil as well as military construction and projects such as harbors, waterways, airfields, and missile bases.
England, largest of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
English Channel, arm of the Atlantic Ocean separating Great Britain and France.
English cocker spaniel, breed of sporting dog, most popular as a pet.
English foxhound, breed of hound dog with a short, glossy coat, bred to follow the scent left by a fox.
English horn, musical instrument, in the oboe family, somewhat larger than a standard oboe.
English language, native language of more than 400 million people in the United States, the British Isles, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. English belongs to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages and is most closely related to Dutch, Flemish, and German. Old English originated when the languages of the Angle and Saxon tribes replaced those of the native Bri…
English literature, poetry, prose, and drama written by authors from the British Isles, primarily England, Scotland, and Wales, and, to a certain extent, Ireland. English literature mirrors the development of the English language and is inextricably bound up with the country's history, politics, and social developments. Old English (OE) is the form of English spoken by the tribes of Angles,…
English setter, breed of sporting dog, with silky coats and long hairs (feathers) on their legs and tails.
English sparrow, or house sparrow, bird (Passer domesticus) of the weaverbird family.
English springer spaniel, breed of sporting dog, the original hunting spaniel, popular with Renaissance hunters.
English toy spaniel, small dog, originally bred in Asia, which became popular with the English aristocracy in the 17th century.
Engraving, art of cutting lines in wood, metal, or some other material to produce writing, ornamental designs, or illustrations.
Enid (pop. 56,735), town in northwestern Oklahoma, originally a stopping place on the Chisholm Trail in the 1800s, now the fourth largest wheat storage space in the world.
Eniwetok See: Enewetak.
Enlightenment See: Age of Reason.
Ennius, Quintus (239–169 B.C.), classical Roman poet.
Ensor, James Sydney, Baron (1860–1949), Belgian painter whose bizarre, sometimes macabre canvases were influenced by Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel and anticipated surrealism.
Entente, Triple See: Triple Entente.
Entomology, study of insects, of which there are more species than of any other animal.
Entropy, in thermodynamics, the amount of disorder in a system.
Environment, total of affecting or influencing circumstances surrounding an organism's growth and development.
Environmental impact statement, report on the possible environmental effects of a proposed construction project.
Environmental pollution, contamination of the air, land and water caused by human products.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), independent agency of the U.S. government established in Dec. 1970 to centralize government programs related to control of environmental pollution.
Enzyme, any of the more than 1,000 proteins that act as catalysts in chemical reactions in life processes.
EPA See: Environmental Protection Agency.
Ephedrine, mild, nonaddictive drug used in the treatment of asthma, hay fever, and other allergies.
Ephesians, Epistle to the, New Testament book attributed to the apostle Paul.
Ephesus, ancient Greek city in Asia Minor, in what is now Turkey.
Epic, long narrative poem concerned with heroism.
Epic theater, form of revolutionary theater developed in the late 1920s by Erwin Piscator and Bertolt Brecht, emphasizing the narrative and political aspects of staged events.
Epictetus (c.A.D. 55–135), Greek Stoic philosopher.
Epicurus (341–270 B.C.), Greek philosopher, founder of epicureanism, which is named after him.
Epidaurus, ancient Greek city about 40 mi (54 km) southwest of Athens.
Epidemic, outbreak of a disease in a given area affecting a large number of people.
Epidemiology, study of epidemics, diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Epigram, short, pithy saying in verse or prose, often with a satirical turn.
Epilepsy, brain disorder characterized by susceptibility to seizures and convulsions that can cause loss of consciousness and muscle control.
Epinephrine, or adrenalin, hormone secreted by the adrenal glands.
Epiphany (from Greek epiphania, “manifestation”), Christian feast held annually on Jan. 6 to celebrate Jesus's baptism, the visit of the 3 wise men to the manger in Bethlehem, and the transformation of water into wine at Cana.
Epiphyte, or airplant, plant that grows on another but that does not obtain food from it.
Episcopal Church, Protestant, U.S.
Epistemology (from Greek episteme, “knowledge”), branch of philosophy that inquires about the sources of human knowledge, its possible limits, and to what extent it can be certain or only probable.
Epistle, special, formal letter in the New Testament of the Bible.
Epithelioma, tumor of the epithelium.
Epithelium, tissue covering external surfaces of the body, such as the skin, and lining various bodily tubes and cavities.
Epsom salts, common name for magnesium sulfate, so called because it was first found at Epsom, England.
Epstein-Barr (EB) virus, herpes virus that causes several diseases in humans.
Epstein, Sir Jacob (1880–1959), U.S. sculptor, living in London, whose controversial early work was influenced by African sculpture, Constantin Brancusi, and Auguste Rodin.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), proposed Constitutional amendment prohibiting discrimination on grounds of sex.
Equation, statement of equality. Mathematical equations are often expressed in algebraic notation, where known and unknown quantities can be represented by symbols. Notations of branches of mathematics such as differential calculus or logic can also be used to represent relationships of equality. Other disciplines have created shorthand notations representing equalities, as in chemistry, where che…
Equator, imaginary great-circle line around the earth equidistant from the North and South poles.
Equatorial Guinea, republic in west-central Africa, formerly a Spanish colony, independent since 1973.
Equatorial Islands See: Line Islands.
Equilibrium, chemical, condition in which a chemical reaction and its reverse reaction are taking place at equal velocities, so that the overall concentrations of reacting substances remain constant.
Equinox (1) either of the 2 times each year when day and night are of equal length.
Equity, in law, group of rules and principles arising in the English Chancery Court to compensate for the rigidity of common law.
ERA See: Equal Rights Amendment.