England, largest of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain. The others are Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. England is governed by a constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state but a cabinet of government ministers rule the country. England (pop. 48 mil.) is an urban country, with 95% of its citizens living in cities. London (pop. 7 mil.) is the capital and largest city. The major industries are manufacturing, mining, agriculture, and fishing. The official church is the Church of England (Anglican Church).