Babylon, capital of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Babylon, “gate of the god”), about 55 mi (88.5 km) south of modern Baghdad. The reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (d. 562 B.C.) marked the height of Babylonian splendor. The city's Hanging Gardens were one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Cyrus of Persia captured Babylon in 538 B.C.