Moors, North African nomadic people who adopted Islam and became ethnically fused with the Arabs during the expansion of Islam in the 7th century. The Moors went on to conquer much of Spain and Portugal in the early 8th century, crossing into France, where they were stopped by the army of Charles Martel in 732. Their rule in Spain, centered in the cities of Córdoba and Granada, saw an unparalled development of philosophy, the sciences, and architecture. The Moors lost much of their land in Spain by the late 13th century. They were finally driven from the Iberian peninsula (along with the Jews) by Christian forces under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492.