Ancient Empire of Ghana
Ghana, Ancient Empire of, former empire in West Africa, centered between the Niger and the Senegal rivers. At the height of its power, the empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean nearly as far as Timbuktu. Probably founded about the 4th century A.D., it reached its height in the 10th century. In the 11th century the invasions of the Muslim Almoravids of North Africa greatly weakened the empire. The empire regained its independence but never recovered its power. It was eclipsed by the rise of the Mali Empire in the 13th century and became part of that empire. Ghana carried on a flourishing trade with Morocco and was a highly organized state, with a powerful military force. Ghana was the title of the ruler and also the name of some of the various capitals. The name has been taken by the modern African state of Ghana.