Geography, study of all phenomena associated with the earth's surface, including the forces that act upon it. Geography also includes the study of the interaction between the earth and plant, animal, and human life. Some of the matters geographers deal with are the measurement of the earth, navigation, surveying, photogrammetry (mapping from aerial photographs), and cartography (including the study of map projections). Physical geography includes the study of landforms, the relationship between landforms and rocks in the earth's crust, the evolution of landforms, climatology, meteorology, oceanography, and the origin and distribution of soils. Human geography studies human responses to and effects upon an environment, including the location, development, and use of natural resources.