Edinburgh (pop. 439,900), capital of Scotland since 1437 and the nation's second-largest city. The city is in southeastern Scotland south of the Firth of Forth and north of the Pentland Hills. Edinburgh Castle, crowning Castle Hill (the neck of an extinct volcano), dominates the city and separates the so-called Old Town (dating from the 11th century) to the east from the New Town (planned in 1767) to the north. The wide thoroughfare of Princess Street in the New Town is one of Europe's best-known streets. Other landmarks include the nearby extinct volcano called Arthur's Seat and many fine parks and gardens. Edinburgh has long been famous as a center of Scottish culture. Its university dates from 1583, and famous figures including James Boswell and Sir Walter Scott had links with the city. Edinburgh is known for public art galleries and, since 1947, its annual international arts festival. The city is also a leading government, banking, and insurance center. Its industries include brewing, distilling, printing, publishing, and electrical and chemical engineering.