Czerny, Karl (1791–1857), Austrian musician and teacher. He studied with Ludwig van Beethoven (1800–3) and became the mentor of Hungarian pianist and composer Franz Liszt. Czerny is well known for his études, compositions for the piano which embody some point of technique but are intended for performance.
republic Czechoslovakia. The Czech and Slovakian republics formed a federation in 1968. Slovakia left the federation in 1993. The political and economic liberalization that started after the collapse of communism was pursued by the independent Czech government.
See also: Czechoslovakia.