Transylvania, province in central Romania near the Hungarian border, situated between the Transylvanian Alps and the Carpathian Mts. Transylvania has been in dispute between Romania and Hungary for several hundred years. Once part of the Roman Empire, Transylvania was conquered and ruled by the Magyars (Hungarians) from the 11th to the 16th centuries. The Ottoman Turks took control in 1526 but vied with Austria for prominence until 1711, when Austria dominated. From 1867 to 1918, it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Transylvania was absorbed by Romania after World War I and, though a portion of it went to Hungary in 1940, Romania regained control after World War II. The province is rich in iron and other minerals and is a fertile farming, grazing, and wine-making area. It is famous as the setting of the legend of Dracula, written by English author Bram Stoker in 1897.
See also: Romania.