Suez (pop. 376,000), city in Egypt located at the top of the Gulf of Suez. The southern entranceway into the Suez Canal, it is an important Egyptian port and major industrial center. Railways and roads connect it to Cairo, 80 mi (130 km) west. Its major industries are oil refinement and the manufacture of artificial fertilizer. Suez has been a port since ancient times. Its economy and industries blossomed with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. Suez's industries suffered much destruction during the Arab-Israeli War, causing the canal to be closed. Since then, the industries have been rebuilt, and the canal was reopened in 1975.
See also: Egypt.