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Bacteriology, science that deals with the characteristics and activities of bacteria, as related to medicine, industry, and agriculture. Bacteria were discovered in 1676 by Anton van Leeuwenhoek. Modern techniques of study began to arise around 1870, with the use of stains and the discovery of methods of growing bacteria in laboratory dishes. Much pioneering work was done by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch.

See also: Antibiotic; Bacteria; Immunity.

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