Lyon, Mary (1797–1849), U.S. educator.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Lyon, Mary to Manu
Lyre, musical stringed instrument.
Lyrebird, either of 2 species of Australian birds (genus Menura) of the family menuridae.
Lysander (?–395 B.C.), naval commander of Sparta.
Lysergic acid diethylamide See: LSD.
Lysias (459?–380 B.C.), ancient Greek orator and speech writer.
Lysippus (380s?–306 B.C.), sculptor of ancient Greece.
Lysippus (380s?–306 B.C.), sculptor of ancient Greece.
M, 13th letter of the English alphabet, corresponds with the 13th Semitic letter mem, represented by a zigzag, wavelike form that scholars relate to the Hebrew mayim (water).
Maazel, Lorin (1930– ), U.S. conductor.
Macadam, road-building system devised by the Scots engineer John Loudon McAdam (1756–1836).
Macadamia nut, edible seed from the macadamia tree (Macadamia terrifolia), a member of the protea family.
Macao, or Macau, Portuguese overseas province in southeastern China, on the western side of the Pearl River Estuary, at the head of which is Canton.
Macaque, several species (genus Macaca) of the Old World monkey family.
MacArthur, Douglas (1880–1964), U.S. general and hero of World War II. He commanded the 42nd (Rainbow) Division in World War I and was superintendent of West Point (1919–22). In 1930 he became chief of staff of the U.S. Army, the youngest man ever to hold the post, and was promoted to general. He retired from the army in 1937, but was recalled in 1941 as commander of U.S. Army forces…
Macau See: Macao.
Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800–59), historian and essayist.
Macaw, any of several colorful, long-tailed parrots of the genus Ara.
Macbeth (d. 1057), king of Scotland, formerly chief of the province of Moray.
Maccabee, Judah See: Judah Maccabee.
Maccabees, Books of, 2 books of the Old Testament Apocrypha that tell the story of the Maccabees, or Hasmoneans, Jewish rulers of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. who fought for the independence of Judea from Syria.
MacDiarmid, Hugh (Christopher Murray Grieve; 1892–1978), Scottish poet.
MacDonald, J.E.H. (1873–1932), English-born Canadian landscape painter.
MacDonald, James Ramsay (1866–1937), English statesman who led Britain's first Labour Party government.
Macdonald, John Sandfield (1812–72), Canadian politician.
Macdonald, Sir John Alexander (1815–91), Canadian statesman, first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada.
Macdonough, Thomas (1783–1825), U.S. naval officer who defeated the British at the decisive Battle of Pittsburgh (1814) on Lake Champlain, N.Y., during the War of 1812.
MacDowell, Edward Alexander (1861–1908), U.S. composer and pianist.
Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, until 1991 afederal republic of the Yugoslav Federation, in the South-east of Europe. In the north it borders on Servia (Yugoslavia), in the east on Bulgaria, in the south on Greece, and in the west on Albania. The capital is Skopje. Macedonia is very mountainous. It is struck by earthquakes on a regular basis. The climate is largely continental. A…
MacGregor, Robert See: Rob Roy.
Mach, Ernst (1838–1916), Austrian physicist and philosopher.
Mach number See: Mach, Ernst.
Machaut, Guillaume de (1300–77), French poet and composer.
Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527), Florentine politician and political theorist.
Machine Age See: Industrial Revolution.
Machine gun, military small arm capable of rapid fire.
Machine tool, nonportable, power-driven tool used industrially for working metal components to tolerances far finer than those obtainable manually. The fundamental processes used are cutting and grinding, individual machines being designed for boring, broaching, drilling, milling, planing, and sawing. Essentially a machine tool consists of a jig to hold both the cutting tool and the workpiece and …
Machu Picchu, ancient (16th-century) Inca fortress city in Peru, about 50 mi (80 km) northwest of Cusco.
Macintosh, Charles (1766–1843), British chemist and inventor.
Mack, Connie (Cornelius McGillicuddy; 1862–1956), U.S. baseball manager and owner.
Mackay, last name of father John William (1831–1902) and son Clarence Hungerford (1874–1938), both U.S. businesspeople.
Mackenzie, Alexander (1822–92), Canadian politician.
Mackenzie River, in northwestern Canada, flowing from Great Slave Lake to the Arctic Ocean.
Mackenzie, Roderick (1760?–1844), Canadian politician and pioneer Commander of Fort Chipewyan (1789–93), he built it with his cousin, Sir Alexander Mackenzie, after they had trailblazed their way west to this northeastern point in Alberta.
Mackenzie, Sir Alexander (1764–1820), Canadian fur trader and explorer.
Mackenzie, William Lyon (1795–1861), Canadian journalist and politician.
Mackerel, commercially important food fish of the family Scombridae.
Mackinac Island, Northern Michigan island in the Straits of Mackinac.
Mackinac, Straits of, channel separating the Upper and Lower Peninsulas of northern Michigan.
MacLeish, Archibald (1892–1982), U.S. poet and playwright.
Macmillan, Donald Baxter (1874–1970), U.S. arctic explorer.
Macmillan, Harold (1894–1986), British politician.
Macon (pop. 281,103), city in central Georgia, on the Ocmulgee River; seat of Bibb County.
Macramé, art form based on knotting techniques.
Madagascar, formerly Malagasy Republic, since 1975 the Republic of Madagascar, republic in the Indian Ocean comprising the large island of Madagascar and several small islands. Separated from the southeast African mainland by the Mozambique Channel, Madagascar is the world's fourth largest island. It has rugged central highlands and fertile low-lying coastal plains. The highlands have sever…
Madder, tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and herbs of the family Rubiaceae, native to northern South America.
Madeira Islands, archipelago, 308 sq mi (789 sq km), owned by Portugal, in the Atlantic Ocean about 350 mi (560 km) west of Morocco.
Madeira River, largest tributary of the Amazon River.
Madero, Francisco Indalecio (1873–1913), president of Mexico (1911–13).
Madison (pop. 176,000), state capital of Wisconsin, seat of Dane County, in south-central Wisconsin.
Madison, Dolley Payne (1768–1849), wife of President James Madison.
Madison, James (1751–1836), 4th president of the United States. Madison, called “the father of the Constitution,” was a penetrating political thinker who guided the deliberations of the Constitutional Convention. He was not a successful war president, but his last years in office inaugurated an “era of good feelings” and unprecedented economic growth. Madison, bo…
Madonna (Madonna Louise Ciccone; 1958– ), U.S. rock and roll performer.
Madonna and Child, among the most important art subjects of Christian religion.
Madras (pop. 3,841,000), large coastal city in southeastern India.
Madrid (pop. 3,000,000), city, capital of Spain and of Madrid province, on the Manzanares River in New Castile.
Madrid Hurtado, Miguel de la See: De la Madrid Hurtado, Miguel.
Madrigal, poetic part song for 2 or more voices singing separate melodies.
Madroña, shrub or tree (Arbutus menziesii) in the heath family.
Maecenas, Gaius (70?–8 B.C.), Roman statesman famous as the patron of Horace, Vergil, and Propertius.
Maenads, in Greek and Roman mythology, female devotees of Dionysus or Bacchus.
Maeterlinck, Maurice (1862–1949), prolific Belgian poet and playwright influenced by French symbolists.
Maffei galaxies, 2 galaxies near the Milky Way, discovered behind cosmic dust clouds through the use of a special infrared-sensitive telescope and photographic system by Italian astronomer Paolo Maffei (1968).
Maffei, Paolo See: Maffei galaxies.
Mafia, name given in the 19th century to Sicilian secret criminal societies who sought justice outside of the established legal system and dominated the peasantry through terrorism (e.g., the vendetta).
Magdalene See: Mary Magdalene.
Magellan, Ferdinand (c.1480–1521), Portuguese navigator who commanded the first expedition to sail around the world.
Magellan, Strait of, north of Cape Horn, separating mainland South America from Tierra del Fuego; about 330 mi (530 km) long and 2.5–15 mi (4–24 km) wide.
Magellanic Clouds, 2 irregular galaxies nearest the Milky Way, visible in the far southern sky.
Maggot, the soft-bodied larva of a winged insect, e.g., a fly.
Magi, hereditary members of the priestly class of the ancient Persian Empire.
Magic, prescientific belief that an individual, by use of a ritual or spoken formula, may achieve superhuman powers.
Maginot Line, massive French fortifications system, built 1930–34 between the Swiss and Belgian borders.
Magma, molten material formed in the upper mantle, or crust, of the earth, composed of a mixture of various complex silicates in which are dissolved various gaseous materials, including water.
Magna Carta, or Magna Charta (Latin, “great charter”), major British constitutional charter forced on King John I by a baronial alliance at Runnymede (1215).
Magnesia, chemical compound (MgO), also called magnesium oxide.
Magnesium, chemical element, symbol Mg; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Magnetic compass See: Compass.
Magnetic equator, also called the aclinic line, imaginary line around the earth where the magnetic pull of the 2 poles is equal.
Magnetic pole See: North Pole; South Pole.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), technique which produces images of tissues inside the body and allows physicians to identify abnormal tissue without surgery.
Magnetic storm, temporary, violent agitation in the earth's magnetic field caused by the solar wind—a stream of positively charged atoms and negatively charged electrons that flow from the sun.
Magnetism, name for a force that occurs naturally in certain substances and can be transferred to or induced in others. The basic properties of magnetism are its complementary forces of attraction and repulsion and its capacity to align itself on a roughly north-south axis. These properties occur naturally in magnetite and, in the form of the lodestone, were observed and exploited to some degree i…
Magneto, small electric generator that produces pulses of electricity.
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), method of generating electricity by passing a high-velocity stream of plasma (gas at very high temperature) across a magnetic field. As the stream moves through the magnetic field, it has an electric current generated in it. The principle is the same as that of the electric generator, except that in magnetohydrodynamics the plasma stream rather than a coil of wire acts …
Magnetometer, instrument that surveys the strength of a magnetic field and registers its results through electronic voltage.
Magnitude, measure of a celestial object's brightness.
Magnolia, any of the evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs (genus Magnolia) from the family Magnoliaceae, often with showy flowers, found chiefly in temperate zones.
Magnolia State See: Mississippi.
Magpie, long-tailed bird of the crow and jay family (especially genus Pica).
Magritte, René (1898–1967), Belgian surrealist painter.
Maguey, plant in the agave family.
Magyars, dominant people of Hungary and their language (from the Finno-Ugric language group).
Mah-jongg, game of Chinese origin played with a set of 136 standard domino-like tiles and several additional tiles, usually by 4 players.
Mahabharata, Sanskrit epic poem ascribed to the sage Vyasa, comprising some 110,000 32-syllable couplets, probably written before 500 B.C. though with many later passages in 18 books.
Mahan, Alfred Thayer (1840–1914), U.S. naval officer and historian.
Mahathir bin Mohammad, Datuk Seri (1925– ), prime minister of Malaysia since 1981.
Mahatma See: Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand.
Mahdi (Arabic, “the guided one”), the prophet or savior who Muslims believe will bring peace and justice to the world.
Mahfouz, Naguib, or Mahfuz, Nagib (1911– ), Egyptian novelist, playwright, and screenwriter.
Mahican, Native American group of tribes of the Eastern Woodlands.
Mahler, Gustav (1860–1911), Austrian composer and conductor.
Mahogany, chiefly tropical trees and shrubs, family Meliaceae, whose scented, termite-resistant hardwood is used extensively for furniture.
Mahomet See: Muhammad.
Mahratta, or Maratha, central Indian Hindu warrior people.
Maidenhair tree See: Ginkgo.
Maidu, Native Americans who lived mainly in the Sacramento Valley and the Sierra Nevada, Calif.
Mail See: Postal Service, U.S.
Mailer, Norman (1923– ), U.S. novelist and journalist.
Maillol, Aristide (1861–1944), French sculptor.
Maimonides, Moses (Solomon ben Maimon; 1135–1204), medieval rabbi, physician, and Jewish philosopher.
Maine, largest New England state in the northeasternmost United States; bordered by Canada to the northwest, north, and east, by the Atlantic Ocean to the south, and by New Hampshire to the southwest. During the Ice Age, Maine was covered by glaciers that pushed down the coastline, creating offshore islands. The moving ice rounded the mountains and left hundreds of lakes and ponds. Today, forests …
Maine, U.S. battleship, sent to protect U.S. citizens and property in Cuba.
Mainstreaming See: Special education.
Maintenon, Marquise de (1635–1719), second wife of Louis XIV of France.
Mainz (pop. 189,400), city in west-central Germany.
Maitland, Frederic William (1850–1906), English jurist and legal historian.
Maize See: Corn.
Major See: Rank, military.
Major, John (1943– ), former British Prime Minister from the Conservative Party who succeeded Margaret Thatcher in 1990.
Major leagues See: Baseball.
Majorca, or Mallorca, largest of the Balearic Islands of Spain, in the west Mediterranean.
Makarios III (Michael Christodoulos Mouskos; 1913–77), archbishop of the Cypriot Orthodox Church from 1950, and president of independent Cyprus (1960–77).
Mako shark See: Shark.
Malé (pop. 55,100), port and capital city of the Republic of Maldives, or Mal dive Islands, in the Indian Ocean.
Malabo (pop. 33,000), capital city of Equatorial Guinea.
Malacca, Strait of, important sea passage that links the South China Sea and Indian Ocean.
Malachi, Book of, Old Testament book, 39th and last in Authorized Version, 12th of the Minor Prophets.
Malachite, CU2CO3(OH)2, green, translucent mineral containing crystals of hydrated copper carbonate.
Malagasy Republic See: Madagascar.
Malamud, Bernard (1914–86).
Malamute See: Alaskan malamute.
Malaria, infectious parasitic disease causing fever, violent chills, enlargement of the spleen, and occasionally jaundice and anemia.
Malawi, republic of east Africa lying west and south of Lake Malawi, and bordered by Tanzania to the north, Mozambique to the east and south, and Zambia to the west. Malawi has a area of about 45,747 sq mi (118,484 sq km), controls much of lakes Malawi and Chiuta, and includes Malambe, Chilwa, and several other large lakes. The lakes are part of the great Rift Valley, which crosses the region from…
Malay Archipelago (East Indies), the world's largest group of islands, off the coast of southeastern Asia, between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Malay Peninsula, southernmost peninsula in Asia, comprising western Malaysia and southern Thailand.
Malayo-Polynesian languages, or Austroenesian languages, family of some 500 languages found throughout the Central and South Pacific, especially in Malaysia and the Indonesian islands.
Malaysia, Federation of Malaysia, independent federation in Southeast Asia, comprising West Malaysia on the Malay Peninsula and East Malaysia, formed by Sabah and Sarawak on the island of Borneo. East Malaysia is separated from the Malay Peninsula for a distance of about 400 mi (644 km) by the South China Sea. West Malaysia is bordered by Thailand to the north, Singapore to the south, the South Ch…
Malcolm X (Malcolm Little; 1925–65), U.S. black militant leader.
Maldives, officially Republic of Maldives, formerly Maldive Islands, republic, a series of coral atolls (115 sq mi/298 sq km) in the northern Indian Ocean, about 420 mi (675 km) southwest of Sri Lanka. They comprise some 2,000 islands, of which about 200 are inhabited. The official religion is Islam and the language, Dhivehi. Malé, the capital, is the largest island. The chief industries ar…
Male See: Reproduction.
Malemute See: Alaskan malamute.
Malenkov, Georgi Maximilianovich (1902–88), Soviet premier 1953–55, after Stalin's death.
Malevich, Kasimir (1878–1935), Russian painter, a pioneer of abstract art.
Malherbe, François de (1555–1628), French poet; court poet to Henry IV and Louis XIII.
Mali, officially Republic of Mali, West Africa's largest country (478,764 sq mi/1,240,000 sq km), Mali is bordered by Senegal, Guinea, and Mauritania (west), Niger (east and southeast), Algeria (north), and Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast (south). The land in the south, fed by the Niger and Senegal rivers, supports the chief cash crops of peanuts and cotton and subsistence crops of rice, mille…
Mali Empire, one of the great Sudanese empires of West Africa.
Malinke See: Mandingo.
Malinowski, Bronislaw (1884–1942), Polish-born English anthropologist, founder of social anthropology.
Mallard, wild duck of the family Anatidae.
Mallarmé, Stéphane (1842–98), French poet, forefather of the symbolists.
Mallorca See: Majorca.
Mallory, Stephen Russell (1813?–73), both U.S. and Confederate politician.
Mallow, shrub and herb of the family Malvaceae, usually with showy flowers and disk-shaped fruits.
Malnutrition, shortage of vital nutrients. Malnutrition may be partial or total and may be the result of poor eating habits, as often occurs among the aged, or due to the unavailability or lack of food caused by disasters such as famine, drought, or war. Malnutrition may also be symptomatic of a gastrointestinal disorder, a malfunctioning of one of the body's major organs, or it may even be…
Malocclusion See: Orthodontics.
Malory, Sir Thomas (?–1471), English author who wrote La Morte d'Arthur.
Malpighi, Marcello (1628–94), Italian physician and botanist who made significant advances in the understanding of human anatomy.
Malraux, André (1901–76), French author and political activist.
Malt, product made from any cereal grain by steeping it in water, allowing it to germinate, and then drying it.
Malta, officially Republic of Malta, republic in the Mediterranean Sea south of Sicily, made up of the islands of Malta, Gozo, Comino, and some uninhabited islets, for a total area of 122 sq mi (316 sq km). The capital and chief port is Valletta. The islands are chiefly layers of limestone, with a thin topsoil, and reach their greatest height (827 ft/252 m) near Dingli, on Malta. Their fertile slo…
Malta fever See: Brucellosis.
Maltese, breed of toy dog.
Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834), English economist, sociologist, and pioneer in the study of the population problem.
Maltose, malt sugar; a disaccharide sugar produced by the action of diastase on starch and yielding glucose with the enzyme maltase.
Mamba, any of 4 or 5 species of snakes in the cobra family.
Mamelukes, group of ruling warriors in Egypt.
Mamet, David (1947– ), U.S. playwright.
Mammal, warm-blooded animal best distinguished by the possession of milk glands for feeding its young. Hair is a feature of mammals, although some, like the whales, have little or none. All mammals, except monotremes like the platypus, bear their young alive. Other shared characteristics are a lower jaw formed from 1 bone, 3 small bones in the middle ear, a neck of 7 vertebrae (even in giraffes), …
Mammary glands, special glands present in mammals, situated ventrally in pairs, modified in females to produce and secrete milk to nourish offspring.
Mammoth, any of several extinct, prehistoric elephants (genus Mammuthus) found in North America and Eurasia.
Mammoth Cave, limestone cavern about 85 mi (137 km) southwest of Louisville, Ky., containing a series of vast subterranean chambers.
Man See: Human being.
Man, Isle of, island, 227 sq mi (588 sq km) in the Irish Sea off the northwestern coast of Great Britain; the capital is Douglas.
Man o' War, U.S. racehorse.
Man Ray See: Ray, Man.
Man-of-war bird See: Frigatebird.
Management and Budget, Office of (OMB), U.S. government office that helps the president prepare the federal budget and formulate fiscal programs.
Managua (pop. 682,000), capital city of Nicaragua, located on the southern shore of Lake Managua.
Manakin, bird in the family Pipridae.
Manama (pop. 137,000), also known as al-Manamah, capital city of Bahrain.
Manassas, Battles of See: Bull Run, Battles of.
Manatee, large, aquatic, herbivorous mammal of tropical and subtropical Atlantic coasts and large rivers.
Manchester (pop. 434,600), city in northwest England, on the Irwell, Irk, and Medlock rivers.
Manchester (pop. 90,936), city in southern New Hampshire, on the Merrimack River, settled in 1722.
Manchester School, group of English businessmen and members of Parliament (1820–60), mostly from Manchester, who advocated worldwide free trade.
Manchester terrier, popular breed of dog.
Manchineel, or poison guava tree (Hippomane mancinella), native to tropical regions of the United States.
Manchuria, region of northeastern China comprising Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces and part of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region; c.600,000 sq mi (1,554,000 sq km). Manchuria is bordered by the Russia, North Korea, and Mongolia. It is an important agricultural and industrial area. Historically, Manchuria was the home of the Manchus. Chinese settlement in the area increased steadily…
Manchus, a Manchurian people descended from the Jurchen tribe of the Tungus.
Mandalay (pop. 533,000), city in central Myanmar (Burma), on the Irrawaddy River.
Mandan, Native American Plains tribe of the upper Missouri valley.
Mandarin, important civil servant or military official in imperial China.
Mandela, Nelson (1918– ), South African political leader and a major figure in the black protest movement against the racial segregation policies (known as apartheid) of the white-dominated South African government. Son of a tribal chief of the Transkei territory, he became a lawyer in 1942 and joined the African National Congress (ANC) in 1944. He gained prominence as a leader of the black…
Mandela, Winnie (Winifred Nomzamo Madikileza; 1936?– ), anti-apartheid activist in the Republic of South Africa, wife of Nelson Mandela.
Mandelstam, Osip Emilievich (1891–1938?), Russian poet.
Mandeville, Bernard (c.1670–1733), Dutch-born English philosopher and satirist.
Mandingo, West African ethnic group, descendants of the founders of the Mali Empire, (fl. 1240–1500).
Mandolin, instrument of the lute family.
Mandrake, herbaceous perennial plant (Mandragora officinarum) of the nightshade family, with purplish or white flowers, a thin stalk, and a forked root resembling the human form.
Mandrill, colorful monkey (Mandrillus sphinx) of central West Africa.
Manet, Edouard (1832–83), French painter.
Manganese, chemical element, symbol Mn; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Mange, disease of the skin that affects domestic and farm animals.
Mango, tropical evergreen tree (Mangifera indica) of the sumac family, and its fruit, originally from eastern Asia.
Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), tropical tree of the garcinia family, native to Southeast Asia; also, the fruit of that tree.
Mangrove, evergreen tree (genus Rhizophora) native to tropical and subtropical coasts, estuaries, and swamps.
Manhattan, one of the 5 boroughs of New York City, consisting mainly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East River, the Harlem River, the Hudson River, and New York Bay. Peter Minuit originally bought the island from a Native American tribe, the Manhattan, for $24 worth of beads and cloth in 1626 and called it New Amsterdam. The commercial and financial center of New York City, Manhattan i…
Manhattan Project, wartime project begun in 1942 to develop nuclear weapons.
Mani See: Manichaeism.
Mania See: Mental illness.
Manic-depressive disorder, or bipolar disorder, mental illness characterized either as mania (excitement, irrational judgment, increase in activity) or depression (lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, guilt), and, in some cases, alternating between mania and depression.
Manichaeism, or Manichaeanism, religion founded by Mani (C.A.D. 216–76), a Persian sage who claimed to be the Paraclete (intercessor) promised by Christ.
Manifest Destiny, phrase coined in 1845 that implied divine sanction for the United States “to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our multiplying millions.” The concept was used to justify most U.S. territorial gains, especially during the Spanish-American War.
Manila (pop. 1,600,000), city (founded 1571) on Manila Bay, capital of the Philippines (before 1948 and after 1976).
Manila hemp See: Abaca.
Manioc See: Cassava.
Manitoba, sixth largest province in Canada and easternmost of the Prairie Provinces. Manitoba is bordered by Ontario and Hudson Bay on the east, Saskatchewan on the west, Minnesota and North Dakota to the south, and the Northwest Territories to the north. The province has an area of 251,000 sq mi/650,090 sq km including 39,225 sq mi/101,593 sq km of inland waterways. There are some 100,000 lakes i…
Manitoba, Lake See: Lake Manitoba.
Manitoba, University of, major educational institution of Manitoba, in western Canada.
Manitoulin Islands, chain of islands situated northwest of Georgian Bay and separated from the northern shore of Lake Huron by the North Channel.
Mann, Horace (1796–1859), U.S. educator, lawyer, and politician.
Mann, Thomas (1875–1955), German writer, winner of the 1929 Nobel Prize for literature.
Manned Spacecraft Center See: Johnson Space Center.
Mannerheim, Carl Gustaf Emil von (1867–1951), Finnish soldier and president (1944–46).
Mannerism, artistic and architectural style (c.1520–1600) developed in Bologna, Florence, and Rome as a reaction to the classical principles of the Renaissance.
Manners and customs See: Custom; Etiquette.
Mannheim (pop. 312,000), city in southwestern Germany, one of Europe's major inland ports.
Manometer, instrument for measuring the pressure of gases and vapors, especially those too low to be measured by a pressure gauge.
Manorialism, socio-economic system of Europe in the early Middle Ages.
Mansa Musa (?–1337?), ruler of the Mali Empire (1312–37?).
Mansfield, Katherine (Kathleen Beauchamp; 1888–1923), New Zealand-born English writer.
Manship, Paul (1885–1966), U.S. sculptor best known for his interpretations of classical mythological subjects, among which is his statue Prometheus (1934) at Rockefeller Center, New York City.
Manslaughter, in U.S. criminal law, unlawful but unpremeditated killing of another human being.
Manta ray See: Ray.
Mantegna, Andrea (1431–1506), Italian painter and engraver.
Mantid, or praying mantis, large predatory insect of the Mantidae family (or order Mantodea).
Mantle, Mickey (1931– ), U.S. baseball player.
Mantra, in Hinduism and Buddhism, sacred utterance believed to possess supernatural power.
Manu, in Hindu mythology, the lawgiver.