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Biafra, name assumed by Nigeria's Eastern Region during its attempted secession (1967–70). Under the leadership of Colonel Ojukwu, the Ibo people of the Eastern Region declared their independence in May 1967, and the civil war, for which both sides had been preparing for some time, broke out. Outnumbered and outgunned, the Biafrans suffered heavy losses, with large numbers dying from starvation, before their final surrender. The former breakaway region was divided to form the East-Central, River, and South-Eastern states.

See also: Nigeria.

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