Izmir (Greek: Smyrna; pop. 1,757,400), port city on the west coast of Turkey, at the head of the Gulf of Izmir, about 45 mi (72 km) from the Aegean Sea. Founded by Ionians in the 11th century B.C., the city came under Roman rule. In the 4th century A.D. it became part of the Byzantine Empire and, in 1424, of the Ottoman Empire. The Greeks occupied the city in 1919. The Treaty of Lausanne (1923) restored Izmir to Turkey, and an exchange of populations was made. The city is rich in antiquities, including the Agora, or ancient marketplace, and remains of aqueducts.
See also: Turkey.