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Ferdinand, Spanish kings. Ferdinand V (1452–1516), also known as Ferdinand II of Aragon and Ferdinand III of Naples, married Isabella I of Castile in 1469, thus unifying Aragon and Castile. In 1492 he conquered Granada, becoming king of Spain. A supporter of the Spanish Inquisition, he expelled the Jews from Spain. Ferdinand VI (1713–59) became king in 1746. A capable ruler and patron of the arts, he carried out administrative reforms and kept Spain neutral during the Seven Years' War. Ferdinand VII (1784–1833) acceded in 1808 but was deposed by Napoleon 2 months later and imprisoned until his restoration in 1814. A cruel and repressive absolutist, he revoked the new, liberal constitution twice; in 1823 he was backed by the French military. He was unable to prevent the complete loss of Spain's American possessions.

See also: Spain.

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