Fénelon, François de Salignac de la Mothe (1652–1715), French theologian, archbishop of Cambrai from 1695.
21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Federalist, The to Forensic science
Fès See: Fez.
Federal Land Bank See: Farm Credit System.
Federal Maritime Commission, independent U.S. government agency, composed of 5 presidential appointees, that regulates the nation's shipping laws.
Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS), independent U.S. government agency whose function is to protect the public interest by mediating those labor-management disputes that affect interstate commerce.
Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), or “Fannie Mae,” government-chartered corporation that acts as a secondary mortgage market for banks.
Federal Reserve Bank See: Federal Reserve System.
Federal Reserve System, central U.S. banking authority. In 1913 Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act, dividing the country into 12 districts, each with a Federal Reserve Bank. A 7-member Board of Governors (Federal Reserve Board) in Washington, D.C., coordinates these banks, which constitute a central banking system, handling the government's transactions, coordinating and controlling co…
Federal system See: Federalism.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), U.S. agency established (1914) to prevent unfair business practices, particularly monopolies, and to maintain a competitive economy.
Federalist, The, series of papers on the proposed new U.S.
Federalist Party, early U.S. political party, in power from 1797 to 1801.The Federalists, under the leadership of President George Washington's secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton, advocated a strong central government, one whose power could be increased through liberal interpretations of the Constitution.
Feininger, Lyonel (1871–1956), U.S. artist.
Feisal See: Faisal.
Feke, Robert (17077–52?), New York-born painter.
Feldspar, abundant mineral consisting of potassium-, sodium-, and calcium-aluminum silicates.
Feller, Bob (Robert William Andrew Feller; 1919– ), U.S. baseball star, pitcher with the Cleveland Indians (1936–56).
Fellini, Federico (1920–93), Italian film director.
Felony, criminal offense more serious than a misdemeanor; the distinction between the two is generally the severity of the prescribed penalty.
Feminism, 19th- and 20th-century movement for women's political, economic, and social equality with men.
Fencing, sport of combat using a blunted sword (foil, epee, or saber), descended from the duel.
Fenian movement, movement for Irish independence from Great Britain in the mid- to late 1800s.
Fennec (Fennecus zerda), small desert fox with long ears.
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), perennial herb of the parsley family native to southern Europe and cultivated widely for its licorice-flavored foliage and seeds.
Fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox), large, poisonous snake of the viper family, found on the eastern coast of South America and on some West Indian islands.
Ferber, Edna (1887–1968), U.S. author, noted for her novels about 19th-century life, including So Big (1924), for which she won a 1925 Pulitzer Prize, Show Boat (1926), Cimarron (1930), and Giant (1952).
Ferdinand, name of 3 Holy Roman Emperors.
Ferdinand, Spanish kings.
Ferdinand, Archduke See: World War I.
Ferlinghetti, Lawrence (1919– ), U.S. poet who was at the center of the “beat generation” writers of the 1950s.
Fermat, Pierre de (1601–65), French mathematician, founder of modern number and probability theories.
Fermentation, chemical reaction that involves degradation of a carbohydrate (organic) material without the presence of oxygen.
Fermi, Enrico (1901–54), Italian atomic physicist who won the 1938 Nobel Prize for physics for his experiments with radioactivity.
Fermium, chemical element, symbol Fm; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Fern, green, nonflowering plant of the class Filicineae having creeping or erect rhizomes (rootstocks) or an erect aerial stem and large conspicuous leaves.
Ferraro, Geraldine Anne (1935– ), U.S. politician.
Ferret, small mammal of the weasel family.
Ferrous sulfate (FeSO4), iron salt of sulfuric acid consisting of light-green crystals that turn dark when exposed to air.
Ferry, Jules François Camille (1832–93), French statesman.
Fertile Crescent, historic area in the Middle East, birthplace of the Sumerian, Phoenician, and Hebrew civilizations.
Fertilization, in biology, union of 2 unlike gametes (sex cells: female egg and male sperm) in the sexual reproductive process, involving fusion of the 2 nuclei that combines hereditary traits of both parents to produce new individuals.
Fertilizer, material added to soil to provide essential plant nutrients.
Fescue, tufted perennial grass (genus Festuca) common in meadows of temperate zones, used for pasture and hay crops.
Festival of Lights See: Hanukkah.
Fetish, inanimate object, such as a stone or a tree, worshipped for its magical powers.
Fetus, unborn or unhatched vertebrate whose basis structural plan is in place; in humans, the period from 3 months' gestation to birth.
Feudalism, system of social, economic, and political relationships that shaped society in medieval Europe. It originated in the 9th century and flourished from the 10th to the 13th centuries. The system rested on the obedience and service of a vassal to his lord in return for protection, maintenance, and, most particularly, a tenancy of land (a fief). The duty owed by a vassal included military se…
Feuerbach, Ludwig Andreas (1804–72), German philosopher.
Fever, rise of body temperature above normal (98.6°/37°C), but varying from 97° to 99°F (36° to 37.2°C).
Feverfew (Chrysanthemum parthenium), small hardy plant with daisylike flowers, once thought to cure fever.
Feynman, Richard Phillips (1918–88), U.S. physicist.
Fez, traditional Turkish headgear first made in Fez, Morocco.
FHA See: Federal Housing Administration.
Fiber, thin thread that may be spun into yarn.
Fiber optics, branch of physics based on the transmission of light pulses along hair- thin glass fibers.
Fiberglass, flexible fibers made of glass.
Fibonacci, Leonardo (Leonardo Pisano; 1189?–1250), Italian mathematician whose Liber Abaci (1202) was the first European account of Indian and Arabian mathematics.
Fibrin, insoluble fibrous protein that enables the blood to clot.
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762–1814), German philosopher and metaphysician.
Fiction, division of literature consisting of narrative prose works with invented characters and incidents.
Fiddler crab, small tropical crab (genus Uca) that burrows in mud.
Fiedler, Leslie A(aron) (1917– ), U.S. social historian and literary critic, noted for An End to Innocence: Essays on Culture and Politics (1955), The Jew in the American Novel (1959), Being Busted (1969), and Collected Essays (1971).
Field, U.S. family prominent in merchandising, publishing, and philanthropy.
Field, U.S. family prominent in law and industry in the 19th century.
Field glasses See: Binoculars.
Field hockey, team game played with a stick and a leather ball.
Field-ion microscope See: Ion microscope.
Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago museum housing one of the largest and best-known natural history collections in the world.
Fielding, Henry (1707–54), English novelist and dramatist.
Fields, W.C. (William Claude Dukenfield; 1880–1946), U.S. comedian and actor who often played a cantankerous, drunken, witty misogynist and child-hater.
Fifth Column, term describing agents working within a country for the overthrow of the government, through their activities of spying, sabotage, and distributing propaganda.
Fifty-Four Forty or Fight, slogan used by U.S. extremists in the controversy with Great Britain over the Oregon country.
Fig, any of over 600 species of shrubs, trees, and vines (genus Ficus) of the mulberry family, particularly the common fig (F. carica) native to the Mediterranean.
Fightingfish, small, brilliantly colored, long-finned freshwater fish (genus Betta) of southeastern Asia.
Figure skating See: Ice skating.
Figwort family, or Scrophulariaceae, group of about 3,000 species of plants growing mainly in temperate regions.
Fiji, or Viti, independent republic in the southwest Pacific Ocean, comprising about 320 islands (about 105 inhabited) and about 7,095 sq mi (18,376 sq km).
Filaria, parasitic roundworm (class Nematoda) that can live in the bodies of human beings or animals.
Filbert, any of various trees and shrubs of (genus Corylus) belonging to the birch family.
Filibuster, practice of prolonging debate to prevent the adoption of a measure or procedure, especially in the U.S.
Filipinos See: Philippines.
Fillmore, Millard (1800–74), 13th president of the United States. Fillmore served only 2 years in office, stepping into the executive post from the vice presidency after the death of President Zachary Taylor. As president, Fillmore preferred to take the role of moderator in the fierce debates raging throughout the country and the Congress in the turbulent pre-Civil War years. At age 15 Fill…
Film See: Motion pictures; Photography.
Finance See: Banking; Budget; Economics; Money.
Finch, songbird of the family Frangillidae, typified by stout, conical bills adapted for opening seeds.
Fine arts, art, such as painting, sculpture, architecture, music, literature, and theater, created with an esthetic goal rather than with functional application.
Fine Arts, Commission of, independent U.S. agency that makes recommendations to the federal government and the District of Columbia on questions of architecture, art, and design.
Finger Lakes, 11 narrow, glacially formed lakes in west central New York.
Fingerprint, impression of the underside tip of the finger or thumb, which has patterns of ridges unique to each person, used as a means of identification since ancient times.
Fink, Mike (1770?–1823), U.S. frontiersman and folk hero.
Finland (Finnish: Suomi; Republic of), independent republic of northern Europe, east of the Scandinavian peninsula. This “land of thousands of lakes” is bounded by 2 arms of the Baltic Sea in the southwest and south, Russia in the east, and Norway and Sweden in the north and northwest. About one-fourth of Finland lies inside the Arctic Circle, and about one-tenth consists of inland w…
Finlay, Carlos Juan (1833–1915), Cuban physician who first proposed (1881) that yellow fever is transmitted by the mosquito.
Finnish, most important of the Finno-Urgic languages, spoken by around 5 million people in Finland.
Finns See: Finland.
Fiord, or fjord, coastal inlet characterized by sheer parallel walls.
Fir, common name for various evergreen members of the pine family, including 9 true firs (genus Abies) native to the United States.
Firbank, (Arthur Annesley) Ronald (1886–1926), English novelist known for his eccentric, innovative style and his verbal wit.
Firdausi (Abul Qasim Mansur; 940?–1020?), Persian epic poet, author of the Shah Namah (Book of Kings), Persia's first great literary work.
Fire See: Combustion.
Fire ant, omnivorous ant (genus Solenopsis), primarily of the tropics, that inflicts an extremely painful sting.
Fire extinguisher, portable appliance for putting out small fires.
Firearm, weapon from which a missile, as a bullet, is projected by firing explosive charges.
Firecracker flower (Dichelostemma idamaia), perennial plant belonging to the amaryllis family and native to California.
Firedamp See: Damp.
Firefly, any of various soft-bodied, carnivorous, nocturnal beetles of the family Lampyridae that produce an intermittent greenish light in their abdominal organs.
Firestone, Harvey Samuel (1868–1938), U.S. industrialist, founder of one of the largest rubber companies in the world, the Firestone Tire & Rubber Company.
Fireweed, or willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium), tall perennial plant of temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.
Fireworks, combustible or explosive preparations used for entertainment, probably first devised in ancient China to frighten off devils.
First aid, treatment that can be given by minimally trained people for accident, injury, and sudden illness, until more skilled persons arrive or the patient is transferred to a hospital. Recognition of the injury or the nature of the illness and its gravity are crucial first measures, along with prevention of further injury to the patient or helpers. Clues such as medical bracelets or cards, evid…
First Continental Congress See: Continental Congress.
Firth, arm of the sea or the opening of a river into the sea.
Firth of Clyde, bay-like mouth of the River Clyde in southwest Scotland 50 mi (80 km) long and 30 mi (50 km) wide.
Firth of Forth, broad mouth of the River Forth on Scotland's east coast.
Fischer, Bobby (Robert James Fisher; 1943– ), U.S. chess player, In 1958, he became the youngest player to attain the rank of international grand master.
Fischer-Dieskau, Dietrich (1925– ), German baritone.
Fish, cold-blooded aquatic vertebrate that breathes by means of gills. Typically, a fish's body is streamlined and covered by a layer of scales. Fish swim by means of fins, especially a vertical tail fin. All fish possess a 2-chambered heart. Fish are found wherever there is natural water, unless it is poisoned. Some fish, such as the African lungfish, spend some time out of water, breathin…
Fish, Hamilton (1808–93), U.S. statesman.
Fish hawk See: Osprey.
Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. federal agency within the Department of the Interior, created in 1956, concerned with conservation and development of fish and wildlife resources, wilderness areas, and river basins.
Fisher See: Marten.
Fisher, Saint John (1469–1535), English cardinal.
Fishes, Age of See: Devonian Period.
Fishing, form of recreation that is probably the world's most popular participant sport; it is also one of the oldest. People fished for food in prehistoric times, probably first by using the “tickling” method of catching fish by hand, which is still very popular in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Today there are millions of people who fish for pleasure or in …
Fishing industry, worldwide economic activity that includes the production, marketing, and conservation of fish, shellfish, and related products, such as seaweeds.
Fisk, James (1834–72), U.S. financial speculator, notorious for stock manipulation.
Fiske, Minnie Maddern (Marie Augusta Davey; 1865–1932), U.S. actress known for her performances of the modern realistic dramas of the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen.
Fission, nuclear reaction in which the atom is split into 2 approximately equal masses.
Fitch, John (1743–98), U.S. inventor and engineer.
Fitch, (William) Clyde (1865–1909), U.S. playwright known for his social satires and character studies.
FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83), English poet and scholar, translator of Omar Khayyam's Rubaiyat.
Fitzgerald, Ella (1918–96), U.S. jazz singer.
Fitzgerald, F(rancis) Scott (Key) (1896–1940), U.S. novelist and short-story writer.
Five Books of Moses See: Pentateuch.
Five Civilized Tribes, alliance of 5 Native American tribes—the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Chocktaw, Creek, and Seminole—forced to leave their lands east of the Mississippi and resettle in the Indian Territory (Oklahoma) under the Removal Act of 1830.
Fjord See: Fiord.
Flag, piece of cloth or other material, usually rectangular, bearing a distinctive design and displayed as a symbol or signal.
Flagstad, Kirsten (1895–1962), Norwegian singer, one of the greatest Wagnerian sopranos.
Flagstaff (pop. 34,743), city in northern Arizona near the San Francisco Mountains.
Flaherty, Robert Joseph (1884–1951), U.S. pioneer documentary filmmaker.
Flamenco, folk music of Andalusia in southern Spain.
Flamingo, several species of colorful water birds of the family Phoenicopteridae, related to herons.
Flanagan, Edward Joseph (1886–1948), Irish-born U.S.
Flanders, medieval county on the coast of northwestern Europe, largely corresponding to northern Belgium, with smaller portions in the Netherlands and France.
Flanders Fields, U.S. military cemetery in Belgium.
Flatboat, bargelike craft used in the westward movement of the United States in the 1800s.
Flatfish, any of an order (Hetero somata) of plate-shaped fish with both eyes on one side of the head.
Flatheads, Native American tribe of the Salish linguistic family inhabiting western Montana.
Flatworm, major group of simple animals that includes the parasitic flukes and tapeworms and the free-living flatworms.
Flaubert, Gustave (1821–80), French novelist.
Flax (genus Linum, especially L. usitatissimum), plant of temperate and subtropical areas grown for its fiber, which is spun into linen, and for linseed oil.
Flea, wingless insect (order Siphonaptera) with legs developed for jumping and a laterally compressed body.
Fleabane, any of 200 species of an aster-like flowering plant (genus Erigeron) that grows in temperate climates around the world.
Fleet Prison, historic London jail in use from the 1100s, when it was the king's jail, until the 1800s, when it was torn down.
Fleming, resident of Flanders (northern Belgium). Flemings, who make up about 55% of Belgium's population, are descended from the Franks and speak Dutch. The French-speaking Walloons, who live in Wallonia (southern Belgium), are descended from the area's original inhabitants, the Celts. When the Franks invaded what is now Belgium during the 3rd and 4th centuries, they pushed t…
Fleming, Ian Lancaster (1908–64), British author and creator of the James Bond series of spy thrillers.
Fleming, Sir Alexander (1881–1955), British bacteriologist, discoverer of lysozyme (1922) and penicillin (1928).
Fleming, Sir Sandford (1827–1915), Canadian civil engineer and builder of that country's Intercolonial Railway.
Flemish, form of Dutch traditionally spoken in North Belgium.
Flesh-eating animal See: Carnivore.
Fletcher, John (1579–1625), English author of plays.
Flicker (Colaptes auratus), woodpecker of North America, known for its colorful plumage and loud calls.
Flickertail state See: North Dakota.
Flint, or chert, sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline quartz and chalcedony.
Flood, flow of water from a river, lake, or ocean over normally dry land.
Flora, term used to refer to the plant life of a region or a particular time.
Florence (Italian: Firenze; pop. 397,400), historic city of central Italy, capital of Firenze province, on the Arno River at the foot of the Apennines.
Flores Island, westernmost island of the Portuguese Azores, in the North Atlantic.
Florey, Howard Walter (1898–1968), Baron Florey of Adelaide, Australian-born British pathologist.
Floriculture, cultivation of flowers and ornamental plants for commercial business.
Florida, southeasternmost state of the United States, on a peninsula that separates the Gulf Of Mexico from the Atlantic Ocean, bordered to the north by Georgia and Alabama. The Florida panhandle extends to the west along the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico. The Florida uplands run down from the northwest into the center of the state. They are characterized in the south by rolling hills studd…
Florida Keys, chain of about 20 small coral islands off southern Florida.
Florida, Strait of, or Florida Strait, channel between the Florida Keys and the northern coast of Cuba.
Florin, solid-gold coin introduced in Florence, Italy, in 1252 and made until the early 1500s.
Flotation, industrial process used to separate valuable mineral compounds from low-grade ores.
Flotsam, jetsam, and lagan, terms in maritime law relating to goods lost at sea.
Flounder, any of a group of edible saltwater flatfish (families Pleuronectidae and Bothidae) of the Pacific and Atlantic.
Flour, fine powder ground from the grains or starchy portions of wheat, rye, corn, rice, potatoes, bananas, or beans.
Flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), small (1/7 in/4 mm long), dark-red beetle that feeds on dried foods, flour, and other grain products.
Flower, part of a plant that is concerned with reproduction. Each flower is borne on a stalk or pedicel, the tip of which is expanded to form a receptacle that bears the floral organs. The sepals are the first of these organs and are normally green and leaflike. Above the sepals there is a ring of petals, which are normally colored and vary greatly in shape. The ring of sepals is termed the calyx,…
Flowering maple, or Chinese bell flower, name for a number of trees and shrubs of the mallow family, and not, in fact, maples.
Flowering tobacco, any of several species of plants (genus Nicotiana) in the nightshade family that grow wild or are cultivated for their sweet-smelling flowers.
Floyd, William (1734–1821), leader in the U.S. fight for independence and a N.Y. signer of the Declaration of Independence.
Flu See: Influenza.
Fluke, name for various parasitic flatworms, some of which are important disease carriers.
Fluorescence, property of emitting visible radiation as the result of absorption of radiation from some other source.
Fluorescent lamp, tube-shaped electric light from which light is emitted by the process of fluorescence. Fluorescent lamps produce about one-fifth the heat of light bulbs (incandescent lamps), use one-fifth the electricity, and lasts far longer. Fluorescent lamps, first introduced at the N.Y. World's Fair in 1938–39, are used largely in offices, schools, and factories. Inside a fluor…
Fluoridation, addition of small quantities of fluorides to public water supplies, bringing the concentration to 1 part per million, as in some natural water.
Fluoride, chemical compound of the element fluorine, and an important trace constituent of the human body.
Fluorine, chemical element, symbol F; for physical constants see Periodic Table.
Fluorite, or fluorspar, common mineral composed mainly of calcium fluoride.
Fluorocarbon, organic compound in which hydrogen atoms are replaced by fluorine atoms.
Fluoroscope, device used in medical diagnosis and engineering quality control that allows the direct observation of an X-ray beam that is being passed through an object under examination.
Flute, musical instrument belonging to the woodwind group, although most modern orchestral flutes are made of metal. The flute differs from most other woodwind instruments in that it is played in a sideways position. For this reason it was once often called the transverse flute, to distinguish it from similar instruments like the recorder. It is also distinguished in that the sound is produced by …
Fly, insect of the order Diptera, characterized by the presence of only 1 pair of wings.
Flycatcher, or tyrant flycatcher, family of birds found throughout the Americas, including kingbirds, phoebes, and pewees.
Flying buttress, arch of brick or stone on the exterior of a building, spanning the roof of an aisle of a church or cathedral, or a half-arch issuing from the upper part of a wall.
Flying dragon, tree-dwelling lizard (genus Draco) of southeastern Asia and the East Indies.
Flying fish, tropical food fish of the family Exocoetidae, that propels itself out of the sea by an elongated lobe of the tail.
Flying fox, or fruit bat, large bat of the family Pteropidae, found in tropical regions, especially Australia and the Philippines.
Flying lemur, or colugo, nocturnal mammal (genus Cynocephalus) of the East Indies and Philippines, similar in appearance but unrelated to the lemurs.
Flying saucer See: Unidentified flying object.
Flying squirrel, omnivorous, nocturnal squirrel that glides on a web of skin between its legs.
Flying Tigers, nickname for the American Volunteer Group, a civilian force of World War II pilots.
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley (1890–1964), labor leader, political activist, and first woman leader of the Communist Party in the United States.
FM See: Frequency modulation.
Foch, Ferdinand (1851–1929), French army marshal.
Fog, cloud near the earth's surface.
Fokine, Michel (1880–1942), Russian-born U.S. dancer and choreographer, a founder of modern ballet.
Fokker, Anthony Herman Gerard (1880–1939), Dutch pilot and pioneer in aircraft design.
Folger Shakespeare Library, institution in Washington, D.C. possessing the world's largest collection of Shakespeariana, including 79 first folios, and a host of material on the Tudor and Stuart periods.
Folk art, paintings, sculptures, or crafts created by individuals according to local needs, tastes and traditions.
Folk dancing, traditional popular dancing of a nation or region.
Folk literature See: Folklore; Literature for children.
Folk music, traditional popular music of a regional or ethnic group.
Folklore, traditional beliefs, customs, and superstitions of a culture, handed down informally in fables, myths, legends, proverbs, riddles, songs, and ballads.
Fonda, family of U.S. actors.
Fontainebleau (pop. 14,700), town in the department Seine-et-Marne, France, 27 mi (60 km) southeast of Paris.
Fontane, Theodor (1819–98), German author known for his novels about Prussian society.
Fontanne, Lynn (1887–1983), English-born U.S. actress, famous for many lead roles.
Fonteyn, Dame Margot (1919–91), English prima ballerina of the Royal Ballet.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), agency of the UN, established in 1945, with headquarters in Rome.
Food and Drug Administration, U.S. (FDA), federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services, set up to enforce the laws maintaining standards in the sale of food and drugs.
Food, frozen, food that is kept at a constant temperature of 0°F (−18°C).
Food for Peace, federal program (Public Law 480), established 1954, regulating the donation and distribution of food to developing or underdeveloped countries.
Food poisoning, disease resulting from ingestion of unwholesome food, usually resulting in colic, vomiting, diarrhea, and general malaise. While a number of viruses, contaminants, and irritant and allergic factors may play a part, 3 specific microorganisms are commonly responsible: Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Salmonella bacteria. Inadequate cooking, allowing cooked food to stand for long peri…
Food preservation, techniques used to delay the spoilage of food.
Food Stamps, locally administered, federally funded U.S. program, established 1964, that enables poverty-level families to buy a greater variety and quantity of food.
Fool's gold See: Pyrite.
Foot, anatomical structure, part of the lower extremity, bearing weight and providing locomotion.
Foot, Michael (1913– ), British political leader.
Foot-and-mouth disease, or hoof-and-mouth disease, highly contagious viral disease affecting cattle, hogs, sheep, and other animals with cloven (split) hoofs.
Football, in the United States and Canada, team sport in which the object is to deliver a ball over a goal line and to prevent the opposing team from reaching its own goal line at the opposite end of a demarcated field. Teams include 11 men. The field is 100 yd (91.4 m) long by 53 1/3 yd (48.7 m) wide. Lines are marked across the field at 5-yd (4.6-m) intervals. Behind each goal line is an area 10…
Foote, Andrew Hull (1806–63), Union naval officer during the U.S.
Forbes, Esther (1891–1967), U.S. author of historical novels.
Forbidden City, walled enclosure in Beijing (Peking), China, containing the imperial palace, its grounds, reception halls, and state offices.
Force, in mechanics, physical quantity that, when acting on a body, either causes it to change its state of motion (i.e., imparts to it an acceleration), or tends to deform it (i.e., induces in it an elastic strain).
Ford, Ford Madox (Ford Madox Hueffer; 1873–1939), English author.
Ford Foundation, philanthropic corporation founded by Henry Ford in 1936.
Ford, Gerald Rudolph, Jr. (1913– ), 38th president of the United States. Ford succeeded Richard M. Nixon as president after one of the gravest traumas in U.S. political history forced Nixon to resign. Ford was christened Leslie King, Jr. When his parents were divorced, his mother's second husband, Gerald Rudolph Ford, adopted and renamed the boy. Ford grew up in Grand Rapids, Mich., …
Ford, Henry (1863–1947), U.S. automobile production pioneer.
Ford, John (1586–1640), English dramatist.
Ford, John (1895–1973), U.S. motion picture director.
Ford Motor Company, one of the U.S. automotive industry giants, established in 1903 by Henry Ford.
Ford's Theatre See: Lincoln, Abraham.
Foreign Aid Programs, financial, military, and technical assistance given by one country to another.
Foreign Legion, mercenary army created in 1831 by the French to save manpower in Algeria.
Foreign Service, diplomatic and consular employees of the U.S.
Foreman, George Edward (1948– ), U.S. boxer, world heavyweight champion from Jan. 1973 to Oct. 1974.
Forensic science See: Crime laboratory.