Xinjiang, large, northwestern province of China, bordered on the northwest by Kazachstan. Most of the region's inhabitants are of Middle Eastern origin, including Turkish. The main religion is Islam. The region has been under Chinese rule off and on since the Han dynasty (202 B.C.–A.D. 220). It was officially made a province by the Chinese in 1884. The region's economy is based primarily on herding (cattle, sheep, and goats) and farming (corn, cotton, wheat, and rice). Ürümqi is its capital.
See also: China.