Xiamen (pop. 588,000), Hsia-men, or Amoy, port city in Fujian province, southeastern China, located on Amoy and Ku-lang islands, on the Strait of Formosa at the mouth of the Chiu-lung Chiang (river). The city has a history of contact with Western nations, beginning in 1544 with the arrival of Portuguese traders, who were soon expelled. The port was visited by Dutch, Spanish, and British ships during the 17th and 18th centuries, but foreign trade restrictions were imposed in 1757. As a result of a treaty following the Opium War of 1839–42, Xiamen and 4 other ports were reopened to the British, and foreigners were allowed residence. During the 19th century the port was a center of the tea trade. It was held by the Japanese from 1938 to 1945. It remains a shipping center, with industries including food processing, shipbuilding, and engineering. Xiamen is now connected to the mainland by a causeway. It has had close ties with nearby Taiwan, and has a large emigrant Chinese population.
See also: China.