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Sun Also Rises, The


a novel by Ernest Hemingway, published in 1926; published in Britain as Fiesta in 1927. The original title derives from a passage in Ecclesiastes, which concludes that ‘the earth abideth forever’. Its epigraph, ‘you are all a lost generation’ (see Lost Generation), comes from a story told to the author by Gertrude Stein, but was later described by Hemingway as laughable after a disagreement with Stein. The novel opens with Jake Barnes, the emasculated narrator, in Paris. Among the cast of characters assembled in the city is Lady Brett Ashley, a sexually ambiguous Englishwoman who is awaiting a divorce in order to marry Michael Campbell. After a fishing trip with his friend Bill Gorton, the description of which is an early indication of Hemingway's completely mature style, Barnes arrives in Pamplona in time for the fiesta. The others follow, and the central section of the novel is devoted to detailed accounts of their fascination with the mysterious ritual of the bullfight. Brett shuns the attentions of Robert Cohn, a Jewish novelist, falls in love with Romero, a toreador, and then abandons him in order to return to Campbell because he is one of her kind. This motley crew disbands acrimoniously and despairingly, and at the end Brett and Jake are alone in a taxi to act out an epitome of the empty relationships which have dominated the book throughout.

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Literature Reference: American Literature, English Literature, Classics & Modern FictionEncyclopedia of Literature: St Juliot Cornwall to Rabindranath Tagore Biography