Congress for Cultural Freedom, Encounter
a magazine of political, cultural, and literary commentary begun in 1953 under the auspices of the Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF), an organization opposed to communism, which intended Encounter as a forum for the expression of unified Anglo-American opinion. It was originally edited by Irving Kristol and Stephen Spender, both of whom had renounced their former Marxism; Kristol was predominantly responsible for the magazine's concern with current affairs and politics while Spender determined its literary content. Albert Camus, Arthur Koestler, Christopher Isherwood, and C. P. Snow, whose views on the ‘Two Cultures’ were expounded in the journal, were among the contributors of essays and articles during its earlier years; poets whose work was published included W. H. Auden, Edith Sitwell, Robert Lowell, Ted Hughes, and Christopher Middleton. In 1958 Kristol was succeeded as co-editor by Melvin Lasky, who remained at Encounter until it ceased appearing in 1990 as a result of financial difficulties. Spender, who became American corresponding editor in 1966, resigned his post in 1967 after it was revealed that the magazine had received financial support from the CIA through channels supplied by the CCF. Frank Kermode, Lasky's London co-editor, also resigned at this point. Subsequent co-editors included D. J. Enright and Anthony Thwaite. Encounter was noted for its authoritative discussions of all major international and domestic issues and for the high standard of critical and creative contributions from a wide range of leading writers from Britain, America, and Europe.
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