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Monotheism, belief in one God, contrasted with polytheism, pantheism, or atheism. Classical monotheism is held by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam; some other religions, such as early Zoroastrianism and later Greek religion, are monotheistic to a lesser degree. In the theories of Sir Edward B. Tylor, religions have evolved from animism through polytheism and henotheism (the worship of one god, ignoring others in practice) to monotheism. There is, however, evidence for residual monotheism (the “High God”) in primitive religions.

See also: Religion.

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