Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre
Joffre, Joseph Jacques Césaire (1852–1931), commander-in-chief of the French army (1914–16). He underestimated German power at the start of World War I, but he shared credit with Gen. J.S. Gallieni for the victory on the Marne. After the mismanagement of Verdun he resigned, but he was immediately made a marshal of France.