Educational psychology, application of psychology to education, especially to problems of teaching and learning. By ascertaining typical student behavior at various stages, teaching methods for different age groups can be refined and developed. The German philosopher Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841) is considered the pioneer of the application of psychology to the art of teaching. Since then many others have contributed, notably William James, (often considered the first theorist of American educational psychology), and John Dewey, founder of the liberal philosophy known as instrumentalism.
See also: Herbart, Johann Friedrich.