Edom, ancient kingdom in what is now southern Jordan, between the Dead Sea and Gulf of Aqaba. Edomites, who were, according to the Old Testament, descendants of Esau, occupied the area around the 13th century B.C. and had frequent conflicts with Hebrews. Between 1200 and 700 B.C. Edom prospered because of its strategic trade route location and copper industry. Between 500 and 400 B.C. Edom was invaded by the Nabateans, an Arab people, and Edomites migrated to southern Judaea, where they established the territory of Idumea.