Transkei, former independent homeland established by South Africa for the black Xhosa-speaking people. Located between the Indian Ocean and the Republic of Lesotho, it is 15,831 sq mi (41,002 sq km) and its capital is Umtata. Transkei, granted independence in 1976, was not recognized by any nation except South Africa. Many of Transkei's people are farmers and herders living in small villages, but the mining of the nation's rich mineral deposits is on the increase. With the abolishment of the apartheid policy, Transkei lost its independent status and fell under central South African rule.