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Boniface VIII

pope political leaders

Boniface VIII (1235–1303), pope 1294–1303. He asserted papal authority over the political leaders of Europe. His bull (decree) Unam Sanctam, which called for the subjugation of political leaders to the pope, led to a clash with Philip IV of France. In 1303 the king's emissaries attacked Boniface in his palace at Anagni, Italy. He died three weeks later in Rome and was succeeded as pope by Benedict XI.

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