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John (1167–1216), king of England, from 1199 to his death. The youngest son of Henry II, John succeeded his brother Richard I as king. John's refusal to accept a papal nominee as archbishop of Canterbury led to his excommunication in 1209. High military spending during his reign alienated the nobles, and in 1215 they forced John to sign the Magna Carta, confirming their feudal rights. John later repudiated it and waged a war against the barons, who summoned French support. John died while the issue was still in doubt.

See also: England.

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