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James, name of 6 kings of Scotland. James I (1394–1437) technically became king in 1406, but he was held prisoner in England 1406–24. After being ransomed by Scottish nobles, he returned to Scotland and suppressed a turbulent aristocracy; he was assassinated during an abortive aristocratic revolt. James II (1430–60) reigned 1437–60. His son, James III(1451–88), reigned 1460–88. His son, James IV (1473–1513), king from 1488 to his death, was the great Renaissance king of Scotland. He reformed law and administration, extended royal authority, built a powerful navy, and was a patron of the arts and sciences. He married Margaret, daughter of Henry VII of England. He was killed at the battle of Flodden Field during an attempted Scottish invasion of England. James V (1512–1542), his son, was king from 1513, but actually reigned 1528–42, during the beginnings of the Reformation. He supported Catholicism for financial and political reasons. His daughter was Mary Queen of Scots. He died soon after his army was defeated by the English at Solway Moss. James VI, king of Scotland from 1567, became James I of England.

See also: Scotland.

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21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Inert gas to Jaruzelski, Wojciech