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Frederick, name of 3 Holy Roman Emperors. Frederick I Barbarossa (1123?–90) was elected king of Germany in 1152. Having pacified Germany, where he pro-moted learning, primary and secondary educational systems, and economic growth, he occupied Lombardy and was crowned king of Italy in 1154 and Holy Roman emperor in 1155. He was drowned while leading the Third Crusade, and passed into legend as Germany's savior. Frederick II (1194–1250) became king of Sicily in 1198 and of Germany in 1211. He was crowned Holy Roman emperor in 1220. Made titular king of Jerusalem in 1227, he acquired territory in the Holy Land and was crowned in 1229. He was continually at odds with the papacy and was excommunicated 3 times. A capable administrator, scholar, and patron of the arts, he went into a decline after a serious defeat at Parma in 1248. Frederick III (1415–93) was chosen king of Germany in 1440 and obtained election as Holy Roman emperor in 1452 by making concessions to the papacy, weakening the empire.

See also: Holy Roman Empire.

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21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia21st Century Webster's Family Encyclopedia - Forest to Gabon