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Francis Joseph I

hungary habsburg hungarian alliance

Francis Joseph I, or Franz Josef I (1830–1916), emperor of Austria-Hungary (1848–1916) and king of Hungary from 1867. A member of the Habsburg family. He came to the throne in a year of revolutions and was at first highly absolutist. He suppressed a Hungarian revolt in 1849, but in 1867 further unrest forced him to create the dual (Austro-Hungarian) monarchy, giving Hungary internal autonomy. Alliance with Germany (1879) and Italy (1882) created the Triple Alliance. His harsh policies against Serbia were among the causes of World War I. He was a conservative autocrat and a patron of arts and learning. His only son, Rudolph, committed suicide in 1889, and his wife Elizabeth and grand nephew and heir apparent, Francis Ferdinand, were both assassinated (1898 and 1914 respectively).

See also: Austria-Hungary; Habsburg, House of.

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