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king emperor

Francis, 2 kings of France. Francis I (1494–1547), king from 1515, strengthened royal power at the expense of the nobility. Failing in his candidacy for Holy roman emperor (1519), he conducted costly wars against the Habsburg emperor Charles V, including abortive Italian campaigns. Although he suppressed Protestantism, he fostered Renaissance ideals and was a great patron of arts and letters. He was also a great builder of palaces. Francis II (1544–60), king from 1559 and first husband of Mary Queen of Scots, was dominated by the House of Guise and his mother, Catherine de Medicis.

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