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Distillation

liquids distillate liquid pressure

Distillation, method of separating the parts of mixtures of liquids or of separating liquids from solids. The mixture or solution is heated so that the liquid vaporizes. The vapor is then condensed to form a liquid, called the distillate. The distillate is a purified form of the original solution, since the less volatile components are left behind as residue. Distillation is used in industry to separate and purify petroleum products, alcohols, and benzene hydrocarbons. It is also used in making alcoholic drinks. Distillation is carried out in a still consisting of a boiler, where the liquid is heated; a condenser, where the vapors are condensed; and a receiver to collect the distillate. Distillation can be carried out under high pressure or under reduced pressure or a vacuum to raise or lower the boiling points of the liquids involved.

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